Thursday, December 31, 2015

Top 6 Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Posts of 2015

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology

This was the second year of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. We hope that our posts have been both interesting and helpful to all librarians and library professionals. As 2015 comes to a close, I want to share our most read articles of the year.

Top 6 Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Posts of 2015
Thank you for reading Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. Happy New Year, friends!

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Sunday, December 20, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

Assigning and Constructing Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Principles, Practices, and Examples From Subject Headings Manual (SHM) Instruction Sheet H 180
Contents:
1. General rule (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to the work being cataloged) 
2. Cataloging treatment (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) corresponding to the cataloging treatment of the work) 
3. Number of headings (what is the number of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) required in a catalog record) 
4. Specificity (in assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
5. Depth of indexing (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that most closely correspond to the overall coverage of the work) 
6. General topic and subtopic; principle vs. specific case (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a general topic with emphasis on a particular subtopic, or presents a principle and illustrates the principle with a specific case or example)
7. Two or three related headings (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a heading exists, or can be established, that represents the two or three topics discussed in a work)
8. Rule of three (when it is appropriate to assign up-to three Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
9. Rule of four (when it is appropriate to assign up-to four Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
10. Multi-element topics (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a complex or compound topic for which a single heading neither exists nor can be practically constructed or established)
11. Additional aspects (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) with important additional aspects, such as limitation to a specific place or time, focus on specific named entities, and presentation in a particular form)
12. Concepts in titles (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to bring out concepts in titles and subtitles)
13. Additional headings (How-to assign additional Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) which are required because of the complex nature of certain topics, or special practices that have been developed for particular topics)
14. Objectivity (Principle to avoid assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that label topics or express personal value judgments regarding topics or materials)
15. Constructing headings (Examples of different types of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
16. Complete subject heading strings with subdivisions (Addition of subdivisions to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to complete subject heading strings)

Major Steps in the subject cataloging process: Principles of SLAM

To remember the major steps in the subject cataloging process, think of the word SLAM:
  • Scan (First, scan the subject-rich portions of the item: Title page, table of contents, preface, introduction, text, bibliography, index, dust jacket, container, label, title screen)
  • Look for (Look for key words and concepts that describe what the resource is about. Is it in a particular form (bibliography, encyclopedia, fiction) – or, beginning to think in terms of LCSH, will this item need a form heading or subdivision? What is the author’s intent? Is there an intended audience or special viewpoint? For example, if you are cataloging legal materials, is the item intended for the legal profession or for the general public? (In LCSH the form subdivision –Popular works is used under legal topics to distinguish resources intended for a general audience.)
  • Ask yourself (Ask yourself what the resource is about. Is one topic discussed, or several? If several, are the topics discussed in relation to each other, or separately? Is one predominant? Is there a specific object, product, condition, or phenomenon? Is an action or process involved? Is there a focus on a particular place – will you need a geographic heading or subdivision? Is there a focus on a particular time – will you need a chronological heading or subdivision? Is there a focus on a particular person or other named entity – will you need to have a subject heading for a name?)
  • Mentally compose (Mentally compose a statement beginning: “This resource is about….”)

Translate into LCSH
  • Search LCSH (You may begin directly in LCSH. Follow USE references to identify the authorized heading for a concept, and consider the approaches shown in See Also references. Use the hierarchical reference structure of broader and narrower terms to help you identify the most specific heading for your topic. Scope notes can help you decide whether or not a particular heading should be used for your topic. Keyword search capability (as in Classification Web) can be a great help in identifying subject headings.)
  • Search in library catalogs or utilities to find similar items; examine subject headings assigned (You may find it helpful to begin by searching bibliographic records in library catalogs or utilities. Keyword searches can be useful in identifying resources on the same or similar topics, and you can then examine the subject headings that have been applied for ideas on where to begin.)
  • Search authority files (You may prefer to begin searching for subject headings in the authority file.)

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used Subject Heading List throughout the world. Even though all libraries use LCSH to provide Subject Heading, most of them are not aware of the proper guidelines and practices for applying LCSH headings. I am saying this from my experience of working in some major libraries in India, namely the National Library of India, Central Reference Library, and the Indian School of Business Library and observing the catalogs of various libraries of different countries and also records in WorldCat database of OCLC, world's largest library catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the focus areas of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. It aims to generate awareness and provide information to librarians and catalogers about Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) based on international standards. Till recently Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) were available as paid products from LC and were very costly. Now that these are made available for free, it is a great initiative and service by the Library of Congress to the profession of librarianship and libraries should cash this opportunity to provide Subject Headings in their catalogs in the correct way using LCSH.


Note: The print-ready PDF file of SHM Instruction Sheet H 180 is available from the Library of Congress website. Links to SHM file H 180 can also be had from Cataloger's Reference Directory of RDA Blog.


Assigning and Constructing Subject Headings H 180
BACKGROUND: This instruction sheet contains general practices followed by the Library of Congress for assigning subject headings to individual works being cataloged and for constructing subject heading strings in the Library of Congress subject heading system. This instruction sheet begins after the initial steps of subject analysis have taken place, that is, after an examination of the item to determine its subject focus and an identification of how that basic subject is expressed with the controlled vocabulary of the Library of Congress subject heading system.



1. General rule. Assign to the work being cataloged one or more subject headings that best summarize the overall contents of the work and provide access to its most important topics.


LC practice: 
Assign headings only for topics that comprise at least 20% of the work.

In the case of a work containing separate parts, for example, a narrative text plus an extensive bibliography or a section of maps (cf. H 1865), or a book with accompanying materials, such as a computer disc, assign separate headings for the individual parts or materials if they constitute at least 20% of the item and are judged to be significant.
Note: There are certain works to which the Library of Congress assigns no subject headings because of their very general or amorphous nature, for example, a general periodical or a collection of essays with no discernable theme. In addition, it is Library of Congress practice not to assign subject headings to texts of sacred works or to individual works of belles lettres with no identifiable theme or specific form (cf. H 1775 sec. 3.c.).
2. Cataloging treatment. Assign subject headings that correspond to the cataloging treatment of the work. For example, to a record that represents a collected set, such as a periodical, monographic series, or multi-part item, assign headings that characterize the general contents of the set as a whole. To a record that represents an analytic in a collected set, assign headings that represent the specific contents of the analytic item.

To a work that contains both text and commentary, assign headings to represent either the text or the commentary depending upon the descriptive treatment of the item (cf. H 1435).

Assign headings based on an analysis of the contents of the work being cataloged. Subject headings do not need to be justified by descriptive cataloging notes.

3. Number of headings. The number of headings that are required varies with the work being cataloged. Sometimes one heading is sufficient. Generally a maximum of six is appropriate. In special situations more headings may be required.

LC practice: 
Do not assign more than ten headings to a work.
Note: As many as ten Children's Subject Headings (formerly called Annotated Card Program (AC) headings) may be assigned to a juvenile work in addition to the assigned Library of Congress subject headings.
If more than one heading is present, Library of Congress catalogers assign them in order of predominance. See H 80 for instructions on order of headings.

4. Specificity. Assign headings that are as specific as the topics they cover. Specificity is not a property of a given subject heading; instead, it is a relative concept that reflects the relationship between a subject heading and the work to which it is applied. For example, a seemingly broad heading like Psychology is specific when it is assigned to an introductory textbook on psychology. The method through which specificity is achieved depends on the nature of the available headings. In many cases, specificity can be achieved by assigning a basic heading consisting of one word or a phrase; in other cases, specificity can be achieved by subdividing a heading. See sec. 15 below for a discussion of the construction of subject headings.

Follow the hierarchical reference structure built into the subject authority file (cf. H 370) to find as close a match as possible between the topic of the work and the headings that exist to express that topic in the Library of Congress subject heading system. In situations where a needed heading is neither established in the subject authority file nor able to be constructed using free-floating elements, see H 187 for general guidelines on establishing new subject headings.

Assign a heading that is broader or more general than the topic that it is intended to cover only when it is not possible to establish a precise heading, when an array of headings is needed to express the topic, or when the assignment of a more general heading is called for by special instructions in the Subject Headings Manual. For example, H 1334 and H 1334.5 contain instructions to add a heading of the type [city]-Buildings, structures, etc. to works that discuss an individual named building or a category of buildings in a city from the architectural standpoint.

5. Depth of indexing. A given heading, depending upon its place in a hierarchy, may subsume several subtopics that are also represented by headings in the subject authority file. Assign to a work only the headings that most closely correspond to the overall coverage of the work. Do not assign headings that represent the subtopics normally considered to be included in an assigned heading's coverage. Example:
Title: Beginning gymnastics.
650 #0 $a Gymnastics.
[Do not assign separate headings for parallel bars, balance beam, horizontal beam, vaulting horse, tumbling, etc., instead of, or in addition to, Gymnastics.]
6. General topic and subtopic; principle vs. specific case. If a work discusses a general topic with emphasis on a particular subtopic, or presents a principle and illustrates the principle with a specific case or example, assign headings for both the general topic or principle and for the subtopic or specific case or example, provided that the treatment of the latter forms at least 20% of the work. Example:
Title: Revolutions yesterday and today.
[A survey of revolutions with emphasis on the Cuban Revolution of 1959]
650 #0 $a Revolutions $x History.
651 #0 $a Cuba $x History $y Revolution, 1959.
7. Two or three related headings. If a heading exists, or can be established, that represents the two or three topics discussed in a work, and that includes no other topics within its scope, assign the one heading instead of two or three narrower headings. Examples:
Title: By land, sea, and air : the story of transportation.
          650 #0 $a Transportation $x History. 
Title: In praise of single parents : mothers and fathers embracing the challenge.
          650 #0 $a Single parents $z United States. 
[not 650 #0 $a Single mothers $z United States.
       650 #0 $a Single fathers $z United States.]
8. Rule of three. If a general topic includes in its scope more than three subtopics, but the work being cataloged discusses only two or three of these subtopics, assign the appropriate two or three headings rather than the broader heading. Example:
Title: South Carolina fruit tree survey, 1975 : peaches-apples.
650 #0 $a Peach $z South Carolina $v Statistics.
650 #0 $a Apples $z South Carolina $v Statistics.
If more than three of the subtopics are discussed in the work, assign the broad heading instead, unless the rule of four, described below, applies.

9. Rule of four. In certain circumstances it may be preferable to assign headings for four subtopics of a broad concept. If a heading covers a broad range and each subtopic forms only a small portion of that whole range, assign the four subtopics instead. For example, for a discussion of the works of four American literary authors, a heading for each author may be assigned since the heading American literature--History and criticism covers the works of all American authors.

LC practice: 
Do not exceed four subtopics under any circumstances.

10. Multi-element topics. If a work discusses a complex or compound topic for which a single heading neither exists nor can be practically constructed or established, assign multiple headings to bring out the separate aspects of the topic. Example:
Title: Cancer morbidity and mortality among Danish brewery workers.
650 #0 $a Cancer $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Cancer $x Mortality $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Brewery workers $x Diseases $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Brewery workers $x Mortality $z Denmark. 
In some cases, patterns in the subject authority file call for assigning a combination of headings that together are coextensive with the topic. Example:
Title: Lipid metabolism in ruminant animals.
          650 #0 $a Ruminants $x Metabolism.
          650 #0 $a Lipids $x Metabolism.
11. Additional aspects. In the headings assigned to a work, bring out important additional aspects, such as limitation to a specific place or time, focus on specific named entities, and presentation in a particular form. These aspects may be expressed by means of headings themselves, adjectival qualifiers in headings, or subdivisions. See sec. 16 below for a discussion of complete subject heading strings with subdivisions.

a. Place. Geographic features and jurisdictions can play a key role in the contents of a work in terms of location, setting, derivation, or origin, and need to be reflected in the assigned headings. See H 690 - H 910 for instruction sheets on geographic headings and subdivisions, and H 320 and H 350 for guidelines on national adjectival qualifiers in subject headings. 
b. Time. Express the chronological aspects significant to the contents of the work in situations where the Library of Congress subject heading system allows it. See H 620 for a discussion of chronological headings and subdivisions. 
c. Named entities. Assign headings from either the name authority file or subject authority file for individual persons, families, corporate bodies, projects, events, buildings, named products, uniform titles, etc., that are significant to the contents of the work. Assign headings of this type when these named entities are critical to the subject of the work as a whole, even if discussion of them does not form 20% of the work. See H 430 for instructions on assigning name headings as subjects and H 405 for a discussion of which file to consult to find authority records for ambiguous named entities. 
d. Form. Assign form headings and subdivisions to represent what the item itself is, that is, its format or the particular type or arrangement of data that it contains, in situations where headings or subdivisions for these types of materials exist, and it is Library of Congress practice to designate them. Consult the instruction sheets for particular types of materials in the Subject Headings Manual, for example, dictionaries (H 1540); genealogy (H 1631); illustrations (H 1659); juvenile materials (H 1690); software (H 2070); treaties (H 2227).
12. Concepts in titles. Titles and subtitles are important because they sometimes state in the words of the author or publisher the subject matter of the work. Bring out or account for each topic of subject retrieval value that is identified in the title or subtitle and discussed in the work. Apply judgment and consider the following points when applying this principle:
  • If the title is misleading, euphemistic, or cryptic, do not use the title as a guide to the contents of the work.
  • If the topic is one that as a matter of policy is not expressed in subject headings, do not bring out this aspect in the assigned subject headings. For example, do not assign specific headings to reflect a narrow time period in the history of a village. Instead, apply a general free-floating century subdivision (cf. H 620, sec. 3.d.(1)).
  • If the title is general but the work is actually on a more specific topic, assign heading(s) for the specific topic.
  • If many topics are listed on the title page in the manner of a table of contents, treat them as a table of contents.
13. Additional headings. Because of the complex nature of certain topics, or special practices that have been developed for particular topics, additional headings may be required. Consult the appropriate instruction sheets in the Subject Headings Manual or scope notes in the subject authority file for guidance on handling these situations. For example, special provisions exist for works on foreign relations (H 1629); folklore (H 1627); public opinion (H 1955); biography (H 1330); local history and genealogical source materials (H 1845); and other special topics.

14. Objectivity. Avoid assigning headings that label topics or express personal value judgments regarding topics or materials. Individual cataloger knowledge and judgment inevitably play a role in assessing what is significant in a work's contents, but headings should not be assigned that reflect a cataloger's opinion about the contents. Consider the intent of the author or publisher and, if possible, assign headings for this orientation without being judgmental. Follow stated intentions of the author or publisher in such matters as readership, audience level, treatment as fact or fiction, etc.

15. Constructing headings. Subject headings may be in the form of a word, a phrase, or a name, all assigned with or without subdivisions. Examples:

  • Simple nouns: Children; Dogs; Libraries
  • Compound nouns: Bioengineering; Electrometallurgy
  • Nouns with parenthetical qualifiers: Seals (Animals); Crack (Drug)
  • Nouns with adjectives: Gifted children; Wild dogs; Academic libraries; Sculpture, American; Science, Ancient
  • Phrases with prepositions: Teachers of gifted children; Photography of dogs; Photocopying services in libraries
  • Compound phrases: Children and animals; Bolts and nuts; Comic strips, books, etc.
  • Complex phrases: Names carved on trees; Infants switched at birth; Monkeys as aids for people with disabilities
  • Topical, name, or form/genre headings with subdivisions: Taxation--Effect of inflation on; United States--Civilization--African American influences; Woodwind trios (Bassoon, clarinet, flute)--Scores and parts
There is no general rule for correlating elements of compound topics when establishing precoordinated headings. New headings are usually formulated following precedents and patterns that exist in a particular discipline or field of knowledge. See H 290 - H 360 for instructions on formulating headings of certain types. Whenever it is feasible, consistency in form and structure among similar headings is achieved through the use of recurring patterns. For example, see H 1580 and H 1675 for instructions involving headings for effect and influence of one topic on another.

16. Complete subject heading strings with subdivisions. Each subject heading assigned to a work should be in the form of a complete string composed of a number of prescribed elements of which headings established in the subject authority file represent only a part. In many cases, it is not sufficient to select an individual heading or heading-subdivision combination from the subject authority file. As appropriate, supply additional elements to represent subtopic, place, time, and form in accordance with instructions in the subject authority file and the Subject Headings Manual. Consult H 1075 for general instructions on subdivisions, including the four types of subdivisions and the prescribed orders for combining them in meaningful subject heading strings. Assign subdivisions to reflect the contents of the work without regard to the size of the file under the basic heading.

[Source: Library of Congress]

See also:
Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your feedback of this article. You can also suggest edits/additions to this article: Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing  of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on Library Technical Processing and Information Access Through The Subject with special reference to the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM), Subject Headings Manual (SHM), and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress. Librarianship Studies Blog will also highlight the history, development, and techniques of providing classification number using Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC).

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Saturday, December 5, 2015

Place of Publication in RDA & AACR2 & MARC 21 Examples


http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/11/place-publication-rda-aacr2.html


A place of publication is a place associated with the publication, release, or issuing of a resource. (RDA Rule 2.8.2.1) ... … … (Visit link mentioned above to read complete article)

Contents:
  • CORE ELEMENT 
  • How is Place of Publication defined in RDA
  • Where are Rules for Place of Publication in RDA
  • What are the Sources of Information for Place of Publication in RDA 
  • How is Place of Publication Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
  • More than One Place of Publication
  • Language or Script
  • Place of Publication Not Identified
  • LC-PCC PS 2.8.2.6 
  • RDA vs AACR2: 3 Changes from AACR2 Regarding Place of Publication 
  • MARC 21 Field 264
  • RDA Examples of Recording Place of Publication in MARC 21 Field 264
  • RDA Examples of Recording Place of Publication in RDA and AACR2

About RDA Blog : RDA Blog is a blog on Resource Description and Access (RDA), a new library cataloging standard that provides instructions and guidelines on formulating data for resource description and discovery, organized based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), intended for use by libraries and other cultural organizations replacing Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). This blog lists description and links to resources on Resource Description & Access (RDA). It is an attempt to bring together at one place all the useful and important information, rules, references, news, and links on Resource Description and AccessFRBRFRADFRSADMARC standardsAACR2BIBFRAME, and other items related to current developments and trends in library cataloging practice. RDA Blog History: RDA Blog was created by Salman Haider, a Cataloging & Metadata Librarian Blogger & Online Social Media Expert from India. RDA Blog embarked on its journey to provide useful information to Resource Description and Access (RDA) in August 2011. It received good response from librarians, catalogers, and library professionals from all around the world. It is interesting to note that the first hundred thousand pageviews to RDA Blog came in 3 years, but it took just 8 months to reach another hundred thousand pageviews. At present it is viewed at a rate of fifteen to twenty thousand pageviews per month. RDA Blog is widely followed in social media. RDA Blog also made it to the list of useful resources of following:

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Subject Headings Manual : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Librarianship Studies & Information Technology
Library of Congress Subject Headings

Subject Headings Manual  Subject Headings Manual (SHM) provides guidelines to use Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The manual was originally conceived as an in-house procedure manual to aid subject catalogers at the Library of Congress in constructing and assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) in an accurate and consistent manner. SHM includes explanations of subject cataloging policy, procedures, and practices for the catalogers at Library of Congress in providing LCSH subject headings to bibliographic records and constructing new headings to be included in LCSH. Other libraries who wish to catalog in the same manner as the Library of Congress as well as faculty at schools of library and information science who wish to teach Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to their students should follow the guidelines of the Subject Headings Manual (SHM).

The process of cataloging involves two major activities, viz. Descriptive Cataloging and Subject Cataloging. For descriptive cataloging a popular standards was there in the form of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR), but for subject cataloging there was no formal code of rules comparable to Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR). In 1984, in response to the expressed need of the library community for a guide to subject cataloging, the Library of Congress began publishing its internal instructions for subject cataloging in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. A "preliminary edition" of the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings was published in 1984, a "revised edition" in 1985, the third edition in 1988, the fourth in 1991, and the fifth in 1996. The fourth and fifth editions were updated semiannually during the years 1991-2008. For this 2008 edition, the title has been changed to Subject Headings Manual (SHM). The text is essentially a recompilation of the text of the fifth edition with minor revisions and updates that have been made since the publication of the final update to the fifth edition, which was published in spring 2008.

LCSH, presently in 37th edition (2015) should be used with several auxiliary aids. Most important of these is the Subject Headings Manual (SHM). The Manual contains the same instructions used by subject catalogers at the Library of Congress in their daily work. Although some of the instructions describe internal Library of Congress procedures, most of them are essential for those who wish to understand and to apply Library of Congress Subject Headings correctly.

The rules for constructing and assigning LCSH heading are contained in two sources: the introduction to LCSH and the Subject Headings Manual (SHM), both available online from the Library of Congress website. Based on these guidelines LCSH has provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity. In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about.

In recognition of the fact that the manual continues to serve as an important tool for Library of Congress catalogers, and that users outside the Library of Congress now constitute an ever larger audience, a survey was conducted by a task group of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging in 1994-95 to solicit ideas for improvements to the manual. Suggestions from that survey were incorporated into the fifth edition of the manual and are carried over into this 2008 edition. The most significant of these include the following:
  • Examples are presented in most cases with full MARC 21 content designation.
  • Boldface paragraph titles have been added to the individual sections within each instruction sheet to make it possible to locate specific policies or instructions more quickly and easily.
  • Many instruction sheets have been expanded, reorganized, and rewritten for greater clarity.
  • New instruction sheets have been added, covering such topics as chronological subdivisions, mergers and splits of jurisdictions, artistic photography, cooking and cookbooks, databases, electronic serials, and the subdivision —Songs and music
  • Instruction sheets have been added that provide summaries of cataloging procedures in the field of music and literature.
  • The general instruction sheet on assigning and constructing subject headings has been revised and expanded, and a new introductory instruction sheet on subdivisions has been added.
  • Many cataloging practices that had been observed at the Library of Congress as part of its "oral tradition" are now documented in writing for the first time.
  • The general lists of free-floating subdivision (H 1095-H 1140) now include references to other instruction sheets that explain the use of individual subdivisions.
  • Form subdivisions are explicitly identified as such in all lists of free-floating subdivisions.
  • Where possible, procedures that apply specifically and only to Library of Congress staff have been identified with the caption "LC practice:," enabling other users to ignore the section that follows if they wish.
  • Where possible, more generic language has been substituted for language that in previous editions was meaningful only to Library of Congress staff.

The print-ready PDF files for the Library of Congress Subject Headings Manual (SHM) are available from the Library of Congress website. Links to SHM files can also be had from Cataloger's Reference Directory of RDA Blog.

This data is updated as changes are approved. Because of steadily declining demand and increasing printing costs, SHM is being made available as free downloadable PDF files. For users desiring enhanced functionality, SHM will continue as part of the web-based subscription product, Cataloger's Desktop.

Used for: SHM, Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, Library of Congress Subject Headings Manual

Note: This description is chiefly based on information from Library of Congress.




This new encyclopedic entry in the Glossary of Library & Information Science of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog on Subject Headings Manual (SHM) answers following questions?
  • What is Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is history of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is the cost of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • How SHM is revised?
  • Where can we get free SHM?
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?
Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used Subject Heading List throughout the world. Even though all libraries use LCSH to provide Subject Heading, most of them are not aware of the proper guidelines and practices for applying LCSH headings. I am saying this from my experience of working in some major libraries in India, namely the National Library of IndiaCentral Reference Library, and the Indian School of Business Library and observing the catalogs of various libraries of different countries and also records in WorldCat database OCLC, world's largest library catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the focus areas of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. It aims to generate awareness and provide information to librarians and catalogers about Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) based on international standards. Till recently Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) were available as paid products from LC and were very costly. Now that these are made available for free, it is a great initiative and service by the Library of Congress to the profession of librarianship and libraries should cash this opportunity to provide Subject Headings in their catalogs in the correct way.  

All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:

Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Subject Headings Manual (SHM). You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.

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Saturday, November 14, 2015

RDA LC-PCC PS Revision

Resource Description and Access RDA


RDA Toolkit Update, October 13, 2015 - Changes in Resource Description and Access (RDA) and Library of Congress - Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) and RDA Toolkit

A new release of the RDA Toolkit is published on Tuesday, October 13.  This message covers several points you should be aware of related to the release.

TOPIC 1: Changes in RDA Content
TOPIC 2: Change in Content in LC-PCC PSs

TOPIC 3: Functional Changes in the RDA Toolkit

Read now: http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/11/rda-lc-pcc-ps-revision.html

Friday, November 13, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Librarianship Studies & Information Technology
Library of Congress Subject Headings

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBJECT HEADINGS  Library of Congress Subject Headings is the list of headings produced from the subject authority file maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records, and published annually. It is popularly known by its abbreviation as LCSH and is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase subject authority file. LCSH is a multidisciplinary vocabulary that includes headings in all subjects, from science to religion, to history, social science, education, literature, and philosophy. It also includes headings for geographic features, ethnic groups, historical events, building names, etc. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used subject vocabulary in the world. It is the model for many other vocabularies in English and other languages and has been translated into numerous languages. The strongest aspect of LCSH is that it represents subject headings of the Library of Congress, the national library of the United States, one of the richest of national libraries of the world. The administrative and managerial machinery of LC has made it possible for LCSH to stand out as an undisputed leader. LCSH is also used as indexing vocabulary in a number of published bibliographies.

LCSH comprise a thesaurus or a controlled vocabulary of subject headings which is used by a cataloger or an indexer to assign subject headings to a bibliographic record to represent the subject of a work he/she is cataloging. LCSH contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonym terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as the subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. Cross references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) was originally developed by the Library of Congress for use in its cataloging records in 1898. It was first published in 1914 under the title Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogs of the Library of Congress. Since then, it has become the standard list for providing subject headings in the United States as well as other countries. The list has gone through many editions. Starting from the eighth edition, the title was changed to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The thirty-seventh edition of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH 37) contains headings established by the Library through January 2015. The headings included in this list were obtained by creating a file consisting of all subject heading and subdivision records in verified status in the subject authority file at the Library of Congress. Approximately 337,354 authority records were in the file then. The subject authority database from which the headings in this edition were drawn indicates that the file contains approximately 24,018 personal name headings of which 22,854 represent family names, 9,454 corporate headings, 9 meeting or conference headings, 485 uniform titles, 239, 916 topical subject headings, and 60,354 geographic subject headings. There are 770 general USE references, 4,360 general see also references, 294, 791 references from one usable heading to another, and 354, 879 references from unused terms to used headings. The creation and revision of subject headings is a continuous process. Approximately 5,000 new headings, including headings with subdivisions, are added to LCSH each year. Proposals for new headings and revisions to existing ones are submitted by catalogers at the Library of Congress and by participants in the Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO). Subject headings are proposed as needed for new cataloging, due to literary warrant--a heading must be needed to describe a work before it can be proposed for inclusion. These proposals are approved by cataloging policy specialists in the Library of Congress’ Policy and Standards Division. The specialists ensure that the proposals conform to the rules and structure of LCSH, including heading format, provision of references, and scope notes. Approved proposals become part of the online authority file of subject headings at the Library of Congress. LCSH is not complete unto itself. Names of persons and corporate bodies, jurisdictions and quasi-jurisdictional entities, and titles can generally be assigned as LC subject headings, but are established in the LC/NACO Name Authority File (NAF) according to instructions contained in RDA: Resource Description and Access (previously AACR2).

The rules for constructing and assigning LCSH heading are contained in two sources: the introduction to LCSH and the Subject Headings Manual (SHM), both available online from the Library of Congress website. Based on these guidelines LCSH has provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity. In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about.

The present form of LCSH is quite different from the vocabulary that was initially developed at LC over a century ago. The present LCSH has a thesaurus like syndetic structure in the form of USE references to direct the user from a synonym or quasi-synonym to the preferred term, and UF (used for), BT (broader term), RT (related term), and NT (narrower term) notes to indicate semantic relations between headings. LCSH was published in large red volumes (till recently five), which were typically displayed in the reference sections of libraries and in cataloging departments. In early 2013, the Library of Congress announced that it is transitioning to online-only publication of its cataloging documentation. The printing of documentation for purchase has now ceased, and all new editions and updates will be freely available as PDF files on LC’s website. The final printed edition of LCSH was the 35th, published in 2013. The 37th edition is issued in January 2015 as PDF files that may be freely downloaded from http://www.loc.gov/aba/cataloging/subject/. PSD plans to issue new PDF editions annually. LCSH may also be searched online in the Library of Congress Classification Web, a subscription service, or free of charge (as individual records) at Library of Congress Authorities. LCSH headings can also be searched from LC Linked Data Service http://id.loc.gov.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service

Hotels

URI
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85062487

Variants
Hotels, taverns, etc
Inns

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Caravansaries
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Lodging-houses
Motels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Boardinghouses
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification
GT3770-GT3896
NA7800-NA7850
TX901-TX946


Used for: LCSH, LC Subject Headings, Library of Congress Subject Heading




This new encyclopedic entry in the “Glossary of Library & Information Science” of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions?
  • What is Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • What is scope of Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • What is history Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • How LCSH is produced?
  • Is LCSH a thesaurus?
  • Where LCSH is applied?
  • What is the cost of Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • How LCSH applies a syndetic structure?
  • How LCSH is revised?
  • What are the different types of headings in LCSH?
  • How many headings are available in LCSH?
  • How present LCSH is different from the previous LCSH?
  • How to use in LCSH the names of persons and corporate bodies, jurisdictions and quasi-jurisdictional entities, and titles as subject headings?
  • Where can we get free LCSH?
  • What are the tools and resources for providing LCSH?
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?
All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:
Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Library of Congress Subject Headings. You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Library of Congress Subject Headings

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.


At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ...

See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):