Thursday, December 31, 2015

Top 6 Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Posts of 2015

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology

This was the second year of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. We hope that our posts have been both interesting and helpful to all librarians and library professionals. As 2015 comes to a close, I want to share our most read articles of the year.

Top 6 Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Posts of 2015
Thank you for reading Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. Happy New Year, friends!

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ....

Sunday, December 20, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

Assigning and Constructing Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Principles, Practices, and Examples From Subject Headings Manual (SHM) Instruction Sheet H 180
Contents:
1. General rule (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to the work being cataloged) 
2. Cataloging treatment (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) corresponding to the cataloging treatment of the work) 
3. Number of headings (what is the number of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) required in a catalog record) 
4. Specificity (in assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
5. Depth of indexing (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that most closely correspond to the overall coverage of the work) 
6. General topic and subtopic; principle vs. specific case (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a general topic with emphasis on a particular subtopic, or presents a principle and illustrates the principle with a specific case or example)
7. Two or three related headings (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a heading exists, or can be established, that represents the two or three topics discussed in a work)
8. Rule of three (when it is appropriate to assign up-to three Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
9. Rule of four (when it is appropriate to assign up-to four Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
10. Multi-element topics (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a complex or compound topic for which a single heading neither exists nor can be practically constructed or established)
11. Additional aspects (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) with important additional aspects, such as limitation to a specific place or time, focus on specific named entities, and presentation in a particular form)
12. Concepts in titles (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to bring out concepts in titles and subtitles)
13. Additional headings (How-to assign additional Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) which are required because of the complex nature of certain topics, or special practices that have been developed for particular topics)
14. Objectivity (Principle to avoid assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that label topics or express personal value judgments regarding topics or materials)
15. Constructing headings (Examples of different types of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
16. Complete subject heading strings with subdivisions (Addition of subdivisions to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to complete subject heading strings)

Major Steps in the subject cataloging process: Principles of SLAM

To remember the major steps in the subject cataloging process, think of the word SLAM:
  • Scan (First, scan the subject-rich portions of the item: Title page, table of contents, preface, introduction, text, bibliography, index, dust jacket, container, label, title screen)
  • Look for (Look for key words and concepts that describe what the resource is about. Is it in a particular form (bibliography, encyclopedia, fiction) – or, beginning to think in terms of LCSH, will this item need a form heading or subdivision? What is the author’s intent? Is there an intended audience or special viewpoint? For example, if you are cataloging legal materials, is the item intended for the legal profession or for the general public? (In LCSH the form subdivision –Popular works is used under legal topics to distinguish resources intended for a general audience.)
  • Ask yourself (Ask yourself what the resource is about. Is one topic discussed, or several? If several, are the topics discussed in relation to each other, or separately? Is one predominant? Is there a specific object, product, condition, or phenomenon? Is an action or process involved? Is there a focus on a particular place – will you need a geographic heading or subdivision? Is there a focus on a particular time – will you need a chronological heading or subdivision? Is there a focus on a particular person or other named entity – will you need to have a subject heading for a name?)
  • Mentally compose (Mentally compose a statement beginning: “This resource is about….”)

Translate into LCSH
  • Search LCSH (You may begin directly in LCSH. Follow USE references to identify the authorized heading for a concept, and consider the approaches shown in See Also references. Use the hierarchical reference structure of broader and narrower terms to help you identify the most specific heading for your topic. Scope notes can help you decide whether or not a particular heading should be used for your topic. Keyword search capability (as in Classification Web) can be a great help in identifying subject headings.)
  • Search in library catalogs or utilities to find similar items; examine subject headings assigned (You may find it helpful to begin by searching bibliographic records in library catalogs or utilities. Keyword searches can be useful in identifying resources on the same or similar topics, and you can then examine the subject headings that have been applied for ideas on where to begin.)
  • Search authority files (You may prefer to begin searching for subject headings in the authority file.)

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used Subject Heading List throughout the world. Even though all libraries use LCSH to provide Subject Heading, most of them are not aware of the proper guidelines and practices for applying LCSH headings. I am saying this from my experience of working in some major libraries in India, namely the National Library of India, Central Reference Library, and the Indian School of Business Library and observing the catalogs of various libraries of different countries and also records in WorldCat database of OCLC, world's largest library catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the focus areas of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. It aims to generate awareness and provide information to librarians and catalogers about Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) based on international standards. Till recently Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) were available as paid products from LC and were very costly. Now that these are made available for free, it is a great initiative and service by the Library of Congress to the profession of librarianship and libraries should cash this opportunity to provide Subject Headings in their catalogs in the correct way using LCSH.


Note: The print-ready PDF file of SHM Instruction Sheet H 180 is available from the Library of Congress website. Links to SHM file H 180 can also be had from Cataloger's Reference Directory of RDA Blog.


Assigning and Constructing Subject Headings H 180
BACKGROUND: This instruction sheet contains general practices followed by the Library of Congress for assigning subject headings to individual works being cataloged and for constructing subject heading strings in the Library of Congress subject heading system. This instruction sheet begins after the initial steps of subject analysis have taken place, that is, after an examination of the item to determine its subject focus and an identification of how that basic subject is expressed with the controlled vocabulary of the Library of Congress subject heading system.



1. General rule. Assign to the work being cataloged one or more subject headings that best summarize the overall contents of the work and provide access to its most important topics.


LC practice: 
Assign headings only for topics that comprise at least 20% of the work.

In the case of a work containing separate parts, for example, a narrative text plus an extensive bibliography or a section of maps (cf. H 1865), or a book with accompanying materials, such as a computer disc, assign separate headings for the individual parts or materials if they constitute at least 20% of the item and are judged to be significant.
Note: There are certain works to which the Library of Congress assigns no subject headings because of their very general or amorphous nature, for example, a general periodical or a collection of essays with no discernable theme. In addition, it is Library of Congress practice not to assign subject headings to texts of sacred works or to individual works of belles lettres with no identifiable theme or specific form (cf. H 1775 sec. 3.c.).
2. Cataloging treatment. Assign subject headings that correspond to the cataloging treatment of the work. For example, to a record that represents a collected set, such as a periodical, monographic series, or multi-part item, assign headings that characterize the general contents of the set as a whole. To a record that represents an analytic in a collected set, assign headings that represent the specific contents of the analytic item.

To a work that contains both text and commentary, assign headings to represent either the text or the commentary depending upon the descriptive treatment of the item (cf. H 1435).

Assign headings based on an analysis of the contents of the work being cataloged. Subject headings do not need to be justified by descriptive cataloging notes.

3. Number of headings. The number of headings that are required varies with the work being cataloged. Sometimes one heading is sufficient. Generally a maximum of six is appropriate. In special situations more headings may be required.

LC practice: 
Do not assign more than ten headings to a work.
Note: As many as ten Children's Subject Headings (formerly called Annotated Card Program (AC) headings) may be assigned to a juvenile work in addition to the assigned Library of Congress subject headings.
If more than one heading is present, Library of Congress catalogers assign them in order of predominance. See H 80 for instructions on order of headings.

4. Specificity. Assign headings that are as specific as the topics they cover. Specificity is not a property of a given subject heading; instead, it is a relative concept that reflects the relationship between a subject heading and the work to which it is applied. For example, a seemingly broad heading like Psychology is specific when it is assigned to an introductory textbook on psychology. The method through which specificity is achieved depends on the nature of the available headings. In many cases, specificity can be achieved by assigning a basic heading consisting of one word or a phrase; in other cases, specificity can be achieved by subdividing a heading. See sec. 15 below for a discussion of the construction of subject headings.

Follow the hierarchical reference structure built into the subject authority file (cf. H 370) to find as close a match as possible between the topic of the work and the headings that exist to express that topic in the Library of Congress subject heading system. In situations where a needed heading is neither established in the subject authority file nor able to be constructed using free-floating elements, see H 187 for general guidelines on establishing new subject headings.

Assign a heading that is broader or more general than the topic that it is intended to cover only when it is not possible to establish a precise heading, when an array of headings is needed to express the topic, or when the assignment of a more general heading is called for by special instructions in the Subject Headings Manual. For example, H 1334 and H 1334.5 contain instructions to add a heading of the type [city]-Buildings, structures, etc. to works that discuss an individual named building or a category of buildings in a city from the architectural standpoint.

5. Depth of indexing. A given heading, depending upon its place in a hierarchy, may subsume several subtopics that are also represented by headings in the subject authority file. Assign to a work only the headings that most closely correspond to the overall coverage of the work. Do not assign headings that represent the subtopics normally considered to be included in an assigned heading's coverage. Example:
Title: Beginning gymnastics.
650 #0 $a Gymnastics.
[Do not assign separate headings for parallel bars, balance beam, horizontal beam, vaulting horse, tumbling, etc., instead of, or in addition to, Gymnastics.]
6. General topic and subtopic; principle vs. specific case. If a work discusses a general topic with emphasis on a particular subtopic, or presents a principle and illustrates the principle with a specific case or example, assign headings for both the general topic or principle and for the subtopic or specific case or example, provided that the treatment of the latter forms at least 20% of the work. Example:
Title: Revolutions yesterday and today.
[A survey of revolutions with emphasis on the Cuban Revolution of 1959]
650 #0 $a Revolutions $x History.
651 #0 $a Cuba $x History $y Revolution, 1959.
7. Two or three related headings. If a heading exists, or can be established, that represents the two or three topics discussed in a work, and that includes no other topics within its scope, assign the one heading instead of two or three narrower headings. Examples:
Title: By land, sea, and air : the story of transportation.
          650 #0 $a Transportation $x History. 
Title: In praise of single parents : mothers and fathers embracing the challenge.
          650 #0 $a Single parents $z United States. 
[not 650 #0 $a Single mothers $z United States.
       650 #0 $a Single fathers $z United States.]
8. Rule of three. If a general topic includes in its scope more than three subtopics, but the work being cataloged discusses only two or three of these subtopics, assign the appropriate two or three headings rather than the broader heading. Example:
Title: South Carolina fruit tree survey, 1975 : peaches-apples.
650 #0 $a Peach $z South Carolina $v Statistics.
650 #0 $a Apples $z South Carolina $v Statistics.
If more than three of the subtopics are discussed in the work, assign the broad heading instead, unless the rule of four, described below, applies.

9. Rule of four. In certain circumstances it may be preferable to assign headings for four subtopics of a broad concept. If a heading covers a broad range and each subtopic forms only a small portion of that whole range, assign the four subtopics instead. For example, for a discussion of the works of four American literary authors, a heading for each author may be assigned since the heading American literature--History and criticism covers the works of all American authors.

LC practice: 
Do not exceed four subtopics under any circumstances.

10. Multi-element topics. If a work discusses a complex or compound topic for which a single heading neither exists nor can be practically constructed or established, assign multiple headings to bring out the separate aspects of the topic. Example:
Title: Cancer morbidity and mortality among Danish brewery workers.
650 #0 $a Cancer $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Cancer $x Mortality $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Brewery workers $x Diseases $z Denmark.
650 #0 $a Brewery workers $x Mortality $z Denmark. 
In some cases, patterns in the subject authority file call for assigning a combination of headings that together are coextensive with the topic. Example:
Title: Lipid metabolism in ruminant animals.
          650 #0 $a Ruminants $x Metabolism.
          650 #0 $a Lipids $x Metabolism.
11. Additional aspects. In the headings assigned to a work, bring out important additional aspects, such as limitation to a specific place or time, focus on specific named entities, and presentation in a particular form. These aspects may be expressed by means of headings themselves, adjectival qualifiers in headings, or subdivisions. See sec. 16 below for a discussion of complete subject heading strings with subdivisions.

a. Place. Geographic features and jurisdictions can play a key role in the contents of a work in terms of location, setting, derivation, or origin, and need to be reflected in the assigned headings. See H 690 - H 910 for instruction sheets on geographic headings and subdivisions, and H 320 and H 350 for guidelines on national adjectival qualifiers in subject headings. 
b. Time. Express the chronological aspects significant to the contents of the work in situations where the Library of Congress subject heading system allows it. See H 620 for a discussion of chronological headings and subdivisions. 
c. Named entities. Assign headings from either the name authority file or subject authority file for individual persons, families, corporate bodies, projects, events, buildings, named products, uniform titles, etc., that are significant to the contents of the work. Assign headings of this type when these named entities are critical to the subject of the work as a whole, even if discussion of them does not form 20% of the work. See H 430 for instructions on assigning name headings as subjects and H 405 for a discussion of which file to consult to find authority records for ambiguous named entities. 
d. Form. Assign form headings and subdivisions to represent what the item itself is, that is, its format or the particular type or arrangement of data that it contains, in situations where headings or subdivisions for these types of materials exist, and it is Library of Congress practice to designate them. Consult the instruction sheets for particular types of materials in the Subject Headings Manual, for example, dictionaries (H 1540); genealogy (H 1631); illustrations (H 1659); juvenile materials (H 1690); software (H 2070); treaties (H 2227).
12. Concepts in titles. Titles and subtitles are important because they sometimes state in the words of the author or publisher the subject matter of the work. Bring out or account for each topic of subject retrieval value that is identified in the title or subtitle and discussed in the work. Apply judgment and consider the following points when applying this principle:
  • If the title is misleading, euphemistic, or cryptic, do not use the title as a guide to the contents of the work.
  • If the topic is one that as a matter of policy is not expressed in subject headings, do not bring out this aspect in the assigned subject headings. For example, do not assign specific headings to reflect a narrow time period in the history of a village. Instead, apply a general free-floating century subdivision (cf. H 620, sec. 3.d.(1)).
  • If the title is general but the work is actually on a more specific topic, assign heading(s) for the specific topic.
  • If many topics are listed on the title page in the manner of a table of contents, treat them as a table of contents.
13. Additional headings. Because of the complex nature of certain topics, or special practices that have been developed for particular topics, additional headings may be required. Consult the appropriate instruction sheets in the Subject Headings Manual or scope notes in the subject authority file for guidance on handling these situations. For example, special provisions exist for works on foreign relations (H 1629); folklore (H 1627); public opinion (H 1955); biography (H 1330); local history and genealogical source materials (H 1845); and other special topics.

14. Objectivity. Avoid assigning headings that label topics or express personal value judgments regarding topics or materials. Individual cataloger knowledge and judgment inevitably play a role in assessing what is significant in a work's contents, but headings should not be assigned that reflect a cataloger's opinion about the contents. Consider the intent of the author or publisher and, if possible, assign headings for this orientation without being judgmental. Follow stated intentions of the author or publisher in such matters as readership, audience level, treatment as fact or fiction, etc.

15. Constructing headings. Subject headings may be in the form of a word, a phrase, or a name, all assigned with or without subdivisions. Examples:

  • Simple nouns: Children; Dogs; Libraries
  • Compound nouns: Bioengineering; Electrometallurgy
  • Nouns with parenthetical qualifiers: Seals (Animals); Crack (Drug)
  • Nouns with adjectives: Gifted children; Wild dogs; Academic libraries; Sculpture, American; Science, Ancient
  • Phrases with prepositions: Teachers of gifted children; Photography of dogs; Photocopying services in libraries
  • Compound phrases: Children and animals; Bolts and nuts; Comic strips, books, etc.
  • Complex phrases: Names carved on trees; Infants switched at birth; Monkeys as aids for people with disabilities
  • Topical, name, or form/genre headings with subdivisions: Taxation--Effect of inflation on; United States--Civilization--African American influences; Woodwind trios (Bassoon, clarinet, flute)--Scores and parts
There is no general rule for correlating elements of compound topics when establishing precoordinated headings. New headings are usually formulated following precedents and patterns that exist in a particular discipline or field of knowledge. See H 290 - H 360 for instructions on formulating headings of certain types. Whenever it is feasible, consistency in form and structure among similar headings is achieved through the use of recurring patterns. For example, see H 1580 and H 1675 for instructions involving headings for effect and influence of one topic on another.

16. Complete subject heading strings with subdivisions. Each subject heading assigned to a work should be in the form of a complete string composed of a number of prescribed elements of which headings established in the subject authority file represent only a part. In many cases, it is not sufficient to select an individual heading or heading-subdivision combination from the subject authority file. As appropriate, supply additional elements to represent subtopic, place, time, and form in accordance with instructions in the subject authority file and the Subject Headings Manual. Consult H 1075 for general instructions on subdivisions, including the four types of subdivisions and the prescribed orders for combining them in meaningful subject heading strings. Assign subdivisions to reflect the contents of the work without regard to the size of the file under the basic heading.

[Source: Library of Congress]

See also:
Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your feedback of this article. You can also suggest edits/additions to this article: Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing  of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on Library Technical Processing and Information Access Through The Subject with special reference to the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM), Subject Headings Manual (SHM), and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress. Librarianship Studies Blog will also highlight the history, development, and techniques of providing classification number using Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC).

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See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Subject Headings Manual

  • What is Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is the history of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is the cost of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • How SHM is revised?
  • Where can we get free SHM?
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?

Subject Headings Manual - LCSH

Saturday, November 14, 2015

RDA LC-PCC PS Revision

Resource Description and Access RDA


RDA Toolkit Update, October 13, 2015 - Changes in Resource Description and Access (RDA) and Library of Congress - Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) and RDA Toolkit

A new release of the RDA Toolkit is published on Tuesday, October 13.  This message covers several points you should be aware of related to the release.

TOPIC 1: Changes in RDA Content
TOPIC 2: Change in Content in LC-PCC PSs

TOPIC 3: Functional Changes in the RDA Toolkit

Read now: http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/11/rda-lc-pcc-ps-revision.html

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Subject Heading List

  • What is Subject Heading List?
  • Where Subject Heading List is applied?
  • What is vocabulary control and why is it important?
  • How Subject Heading List assist library users and staff?
  • What are the alternatives to Subject Heading?
  • What are the popular Subject Heading Lists?
Subject Heading List

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Library Cataloging Research

RDA Bibliography
RDA Bibliography


This new RDA Blog post discusses status and availability of researches on library descriptive cataloging with reference to Masters, M.Phil. and Ph.D. thesis and dissertations on library cataloging which may be available in print and/or online.

It argues that with the emergence of Resource Description & Access (RDA), as the successor of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2), it becomes necessary to do quality research works on the descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2 and evaluating its significance and impact on librarianship and library services.

It seeks suggestions for potential topics on which researches should be carried out in Library Descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2

#RDABLOG #RDABIBLIOGRAPHY #RDA #CATALOGING

Friday, October 16, 2015

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries


Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Most of the users approach information sources not with names, who might have been responsible for their creation, but with a question that requires an answer, or a topic for study. Users seek documents or information on a particular subject. In order to make provision for this common approach, it is necessary to arrange documents on the shelf and entries in catalogs in such a way that items on a specific subject can be retrieved. In other words, it may be said that subject approach is very important in the access to and exploitation of documents in a library. Before we actually discuss the methods developed by librarians and information workers to meet this requirement, let us consider the question "What is a subject?" while talking about a subject we normally refer to a given area of knowledge, or the contents of a document of a given scope. A subject may be defined by:

a. an area of interest, 

b. an area in which an individual researcher or professional works, 

c. an area in which an individual writes, and 

d. an area of knowledge being studied.

Let us consider a well known area such as Physics. To understand this subject, let us first ask a student studying this subject, as to what constitutes this subject. Also, let us find out the definition of physics from a few dictionaries and encyclopedias. We may come across different definitions and different boundaries for this subject area alone. We may also find that different users and separate pieces of literature hold different perspectives on a subject. The points of divergence in perspective can be categorized into two types:

a. different labels (names) that are used for a subject, and 

b. different concepts about scope and associations with other subjects that are evident. 

Essentially, these factors form the basis of problems in identifying a satisfactory subject approach and the need to have a vast array of tools to explain the subject approach to knowledge or information. It is possible and convenient to select a particular view point on the scope, associations and labels for subjects which coincides with the way in which subjects are handled in the literature. In libraries, most devices for the organisation of knowledge concern themselves primarily with organizing documents, based on literary warrant. This approach is known as pragmatic approach. Collection dependency of the resulting tool. There is retrieval devices, and that is to build schemes, which depend upon theoretical views about the nature and structure of knowledge. This theoretical approach is important in determining the nature of subject devices required for the organisation of knowledge. A subject device normally seeks to fulfill two functions:

a. to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject; and 

b. to show what a library or information center has on related subjects. 

Different devices for the organisation of knowledge place different emphasis based on the relative importance of these two functions. However, the two functions are inter-dependent and neither can be excluded without impairing the effectiveness of the other.

Classification schemes as well as alphabetical indexing systems attempt to fulfill both the basic functions mentioned earlier. The distinction arises from different emphasis. Classification schemes specialize in showing network of subjects and displaying relationships between subjects while alphabetical indexing systems specialize in establishing specific labels for subjects and providing direct access to individual subjects. Also, it may be stated here that author and title catalogs enable the user to locate documents of which the user knows either the name of the author or title of the documents, while subject catalog enable him to find out documents of his interest even without knowing any of these items of information.

The subject approach may totally be alphabetical or it might be classified supported by alphabetical indexes. 

In classified system the arrangement of library materials is done using a classification scheme. The classification scheme provides a library with a systematic arrangement of materials according to their subject content. The second, and the most commonly used method, is indexing the library materials through the use of a subject heading list or controlled vocabulary. This method provides access to the intellectual content of a library. Classification provides a logical approach to the arrangement of documentary materials, where as subject cataloging provides alphabetic approach to the concepts discussed in these materials. These two methods offer two alternative modes of access to library collection.

This new post of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions:
  • What are the Subject Approach to Information in Libraries
  • How library users seek information on a particular subject?
  • How library materials are arranged on shelves and catalogs to be located by subject?
  • What is a subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on related subjects?
  • How classification schemes are used for subject approaches?
  • How subject headings are used for subject approaches?

Source: (Chapter 1) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)


SEE ALSO

ARTICLE AUTHOR
  • Salman Haider - Librarian Cataloger Author Blogger

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Last Updated: 2018-05-25
  • Written: 2015-10-16

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. You can use the comments section below, or reach us on social media.

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Wednesday, October 14, 2015

022 - International Standard Serial Number (R)

MARC 21

First Indicator
Level of international interest
# - No level specified
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
$a - International Standard Serial Number (NR)
$l - ISSN-L (NR)
$m - Canceled ISSN-L (R)
$y - Incorrect ISSN (R) 
$z - Canceled ISSN (R)
$2 - Source (NR)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R) 

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), a unique identification number assigned to a continuing resource, and/or any incorrect or canceled ISSN.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

First Indicator - Level of international interest
Value that specifies whether the continuing resource is of international interest or of local or ephemeral interest only.
# - No level specified
Level of international interest is unknown or not specified. Used by all institutions other than the ISSN Centers when recording the ISSN from an issue or from a bibliography.
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
Of international interest, thus a full record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for all continuing resources for which individual ISSN Centers receive ISSN requests from abstracting and indexing services or other ISSN Network centers. Also used for all other continuing resources that are not within the scope defined for value 1. This value may be input only by the ISSN Centers.
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Not of international interest, thus an abbreviated record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for continuing resources judged to be of local or ephemeral interest. ISSN Centers have defined publications of local or ephemeral interest as those in which interest is likely to be limited to a certain geographic area, e.g., local newspapers, or certain span of time, e.g., calendars of events. In case of doubt, value 0 is used. This value may only be input by the ISSN Centers.
Second Indicator - Undefined
Undefined and contains a blank (#).

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - International Standard Serial Number
Valid ISSN for the continuing resource. ISSN may be generated for display.
022##$a0376-4583
$l - ISSN-L
ISSN that links together various media versions of a continuing resource. ISSN-L may be generated for display.
0220#$a1234-1231$l1234-1231
$m - Canceled ISSN-L
Canceled ISSN-L that has been associated with the resource. Each canceled ISSN-L is contained in a separate subfield $m. ISSN-L (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a1560-1560$l1234-1231$m1560-1560
$y - Incorrect ISSN
Incorrect ISSN that has been associated with the continuing resource. Each incorrect ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $y. A canceled ISSN is contained in subfield $z.
ISSN (incorrect) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0046-225X$y0046-2254
$z - Canceled ISSN
Canceled ISSN that is associated with the continuing resource. Each canceled ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $z.
ISSN (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0145-0808$z0361-7106
0220#$z0027-3473
$2 - Source
ISSN Center responsible for assigning and maintaining ISSNs and related data.
Code from: ISSN National Centres code list online at: www.issn.org, National Centres.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

ISSN Structure - ISSN is an agency-assigned data element. ISSNs are assigned to continuing resource publications by national centers under the auspices of the ISSN Network. An ISSN consists of eight digits comprising two groups of four digits each, separated by a hyphen. The eighth digit is a check digit used as a computer validity check; it consists of a number between 0 and 9 or an uppercase X (for the arabic numeral 10). A description of the ISSN structure and the procedure for validation of the ISSN by calculating the check digit is in International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN) (ISO 3297).
Punctuation - Field 022 does not end with a period.
Display Constants
ISSN[associated with the content of subfield $a]
ISSN-L[associated with the content of subfield $l]
ISSN-L (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $m]
ISSN (incorrect)[associated with the content of subfield $y]
ISSN (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $z]
ISSN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISSN and as two groups of four digits separated by a hyphen. The hyphen separating the two groups of digits is carried in the MARC record. The initialisms ISSN and ISSN-L and the phrases ISSN-L (canceled)ISSN (incorrect) and ISSN (canceled) are not input. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the content of subfields $a, $l, $m, $y, and $z, respectively.
Content designated field:
0220#$a0018-5817$y0018-5811
Display example: 
ISSN 0018-5817 ISSN (incorrect) 0018-5811





NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd022.html (accessed October 12, 2017)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2017-10-14

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650 - Subject Added Entry-Topical Term (R)

MARC 21


First IndicatorSecond Indicator
Level of subject
# - No information provided
0 - No level specified
1 - Primary
2 - Secondary
Thesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes
Main term portion
  • $a - Topical term or geographic name entry element (NR)
  • $b - Topical term following geographic name entry element (NR)
  • $c - Location of event (NR)
  • $d - Active dates (NR)
  • $e - Relator term (R)
  • $g - Miscellaneous information (R)
  • $4 - Relationship (R)

Subject subdivision portion
  • $v - Form subdivision (R)
  • $x - General subdivision (R)
  • $y - Chronological subdivision (R)
  • $z - Geographic subdivision (R)
Control subfields
  • $0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)
  • $2 - Source of heading or term (NR)
  • $3 - Materials specified (NR)
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

Subject added entry in which the entry element is a topical term.
Topical subject added entries may consist of general subject terms including names of events or objects. Subject added entries are assigned to a bibliographic record to provide access according to generally accepted thesaurus-building rules (e.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)). Field 650 may be used by any institution assigning subject headings based on the lists and authority files identified in the second indicator position or in subfield $2 (Source of heading or term).
A title (e.g., Bible and atheism), a geographic name (e.g., Iran in the Koran), or the name of a corporate body (e.g., Catholic Church and humanism) used in a phrase subject heading are also recorded in field 650.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

First Indicator - Level of subject
Used to distinguish primary and secondary descriptors.
# - No information provided
0 - No level specified
Level of the subject term could be determined but is not specified.
65000$aFlour industry$vPeriodicals.
1 - Primary
Main focus or subject content of the material.
65017$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
650#7$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
65017$aCooks.$2ericd
2 - Secondary
Less important aspect of the content of the material.
65027$aFood Service.$2ericd
65027$aJunior High Schools.$2ericd
65027$aSimulation.$2ericd
[Primary and secondary subject content identified.]
Second Indicator - Thesaurus
Subject heading system or thesaurus used in constructing the subject heading.
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the Name authority files that are maintained by the Library of Congress.
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
Subject added entry conforms to the "AC Subject Headings" section of the Library of Congress Subject Headings and is appropriate for use in the LC Annotated Card Program.
2 - Medical Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the National Library of Medicine authority files.
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the National Agricultural Library subject authority file.
4 - Source not specified
Subject added entry conforms to a controlled list that cannot be identified by second indicator values 0-3, 5-6 or by a code in subfield $2. Field 653 (Index Term-Uncontrolled) is used to record terms that are not derived from controlled subject heading lists.
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the Canadian Subject Headings that is maintained by the Library and Archives Canada.
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
Subject added entry conforms to the Répertoire de vedettes-matière that is maintained by the Bibliothèque de l'Université Laval.
7 - Source specified in subfield $2
Subject added entry conforms to a set of subject heading system/thesaurus building rules. The identifying code is given in subfield $2.

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - Topical term or geographic name entry element
Topical subject or a geographic name used as an entry element for a topical term. Parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term is not separately subfield coded.
650#0$aAmish.
650#0$aKalmyk cattle.
650#0$aAstronauts.
650#0$aEgypt in the Bible.
650#0$aBASIC (Computer program language)
650#0$aBull Run, 2d Battle, 1862.
650#0$aConcertos (String orchestra)
650#0$aVocal music$zFrance$y18th century.
650#0$aDentistry$vJuvenile films.
650#5$aCanadian wit and humor (English)
$b - Topical term following geographic name entry element
Topical term that is entered under a geographic name contained in subfield $a. This construction is not used in AACR2 formulated records.
650#0$aCaracas.$bBolivar Statue.
$c - Location of event
$d - Active dates
Time period during which an event occurred.
$e - Relator term
Specifies the relationship between the topical heading and the described materials, e.g., depicted.
650#0$aSeabiscuit (Race horse),$edepicted.
[Photograph of Seabiscuit, the race horse.]
650#0$aUnicorns,$edepicted.
[Bayeux Tapestry, showing a unicorn.]
$g - Miscellaneous information
Data element that is not more appropriately contained in another defined subfield.
$v - Form subdivision
Form subdivision that designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield $v is appropriate only when a form subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aScuba diving$vPeriodicals.
650#0$aVomiting$xTreatment$vHandbooks, manuals, etc.
$x - General subdivision
Subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfields $v (Form subdivision), $y (Chronological subdivision), or $z (Geographic subdivision). Subfield $x is appropriate only when a general topical subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aRacetracks (Horse-racing)$zUnited States$xHistory.
650#0$aNumismatics$xCollectors and collecting.
$y - Chronological subdivision
Subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aMusic$y500-1400.
$z - Geographic subdivision
Geographic subject subdivision. Subfield $z is appropriate in field 650 only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aWorld War, 1939-1945$xCampaigns$zTunisia.
650#0$aReal property$zMississippi$zTippah County$vMaps.
$0 - Authority record control number or standard number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$2 - Source of heading or term
MARC code that identifies the source list from which the subject added entry was assigned. It is used only when the second indicator position contains value 7 (Source specified in subfield $2). Code from: Subject Heading and Term Source Codes.
650#7$aEducational buildings$zWashington (D.C.)$y1890-1910.$2lctgm
65017$aAcoustic measurement.$2test
$3 - Materials specified
Part of the described materials to which the field applies.
$4 - Relationship
Code or URI that specifies the relationship from the entity described in the record to the entity referenced in the field. A source of relationship codes is: MARC Code List for Relators.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Ambiguous Headings - See Appendix E.
Punctuation - Field 650 ends with a mark of punctuation or a closing parenthesis. If the final subfields are subfield $2 or $3, the mark of punctuation precedes those subfields.
65017$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
650#0$aBallads, English$zHudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)
Main term portion followed by a subject subdivision does not end with a mark of punctuation unless the main term portion ends with an abbreviation, initial/letter, or open date.
650#0$aRain and rainfall$zWashington (State)$zSeattle$vMaps.
Spacing - No spaces are used in initialisms, acronyms, or abbreviations.
650#0$aMARC formats.
650#0$aC.O.D. shipments.
Display Constant
-[dash associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, or $z]
Dash ( - ) that precedes a subject subdivision in an extended subject heading is not carried in the machine-readable record. It may be system generated as a display constant associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z.
 
Content designated field :
650#0$aNuclear energy$xHistory.
Display example:
Nuclear energy-History.
Initial Article - Initial articles (e.g., The) occurring at the beginning of topical subject added entry fields are usually omitted in most languages (except when the intent is to file on the article).
Any diacritics and/or special characters occurring at the beginning of fields are retained. Note that such characters are usually ignored for purposes of sorting and filing.

CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

$b - Topical term following geographic name as entry element [OBSOLETE, 1981]
Subfield was restored for use in retrospective record conversion in 1987.
$g - Miscellaneous information [NEW, 2014]
$4 - Relator code [NEW, 2005]
$4 - Relator code [RENAMED, 2017] [REDESCRIBED, 2017]
Subfield $4 was renamed and redescribed to allow for the recording of relationship URIs in addition to MARC and non-MARC codes.



NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd650.html (accessed December 8, 2015)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2015-10-14

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. 

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...