Cataloging & Metadata

Cataloging & Metadata


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Cataloging - Cataloging or Library Cataloging is the process of creating and maintaining bibliographic and authority records of the library catalog, the database of books, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, computer files, e-resources etc. that are owned by a library. The catalog may be in tangible form, such as a card catalog or in electronic form, such as online public access catalog (OPAC). The process of cataloging involves two major activities, viz. Descriptive Cataloging and Subject Cataloging. In Descriptive Cataloging we describe details of library resources, such as the name of creator(s), contributor(s), titles, edition, publication, distribution, date, physical description, series etc. Two popular standards for Descriptive Cataloging are Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR) and its successor Resource Description and Access (RDA). Subject cataloging involves subject analysis of the resource and assignment of classification numbers using schemes such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and providing subject headings using schemes such as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH).

Authority Record  Authority Record is a record which gives the authoritative form (the form selected for a heading) of a personal name, corporate name, family name, place name, uniform or preferred title, series title, subject, etc. in the library catalog or the file of bibliographic records, and are listed in an authority file containing headings of library items. To ensure consistency, an authority record is created for each authorized heading (authorized access point) for a proper name or a subject, etc. An authority record is made when a heading is established, i.e., authorized for use as the main entry (preferred title and, if appropriate, the authorized access point for the creator), an added entry, or subject entry, for the first time, while cataloging of a library item. Authority record may be in a printed or machine-readable form.

An authority record contains essentially the following elements:
  • The established form of heading for a person, a corporate body, a family, a place, a uniform title (i.e., the standardized title for a work that has appeared under different titles), series title, or a subject
  • Cross references from other names, titles, or terms not used for the heading, and to and from related or alternative headings
  • The sources used in establishing the heading; i.e., a list of sources that justify the established and alternative forms
  • Notes concerning the application of the authorized form
  • In some cases, classification number may be given by the classifiers in the authority records. Classification number may be provided to a name or subject authority record. An example of a subject authority record (SAR) including Library of Congress Classification Number can be seen in the SAR for a caste and class of person subject heading Dalits, where two LCC numbers are given; DS422.C3 for a class of persons in India and DS493.9.D24 for a class of persons in Nepal. An example of a name authority record (NAR) with a literary author number  (LAN) using Library of Congress Classification (LCC) can be seen in the NAR for a Hindi and Urdu author Premacanda in the Library of Congress Name Authority File, where two LCC numbers are given to author; PK2098.S7 as a Hindi author and PK2199.P76 as an Urdu author. 
Core Elements  Core elements in Resource Description & Access (RDA) are minimum elements required for describing resources. Core elements are a new feature of RDA which allowed for certain metadata elements to be identified as “required” in the cataloging process. The assignment of core status is based on attributes mandatory for a national level record, as documented in the FRBR/FRAD modules. At a minimum, a bibliographic description should include all the required core elements that are applicable. Core-ness is identified at the element level. Some elements are always core (if applicable and the information is available); some are core only in certain situations. Core elements are identified in two ways within RDA. The first is that all core elements are discussed in general, and listed as a group, in the sub-instructions of "RDA 0.6: Core Elements". In the separate chapters, the core elements are also identified individually by the label “CORE ELEMENT” at the beginning of the instructions for each element. They are clearly labeled in light blue at each core instruction in RDA Toolkit.  If the status of an element as core depends upon the situation, an explanation appears after the “Core element” label.

RDA Alternatives  Alternative guidelines and instructions  in Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide an alternative approach to what is specified in the immediately preceding guideline or instruction. A cataloger can choose to follow the rule or the alternative. 

RDA Options  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as options. Options appear in two forms in RDA, viz. Optional additions and Optional omissions. ... ... ... ... (Visit the link to read complete article)

RDA Exceptions  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as exceptions. Some instructions are scoped as being applicable only to certain types of resources (such as serials). An exception is an instruction that takes precedence over the immediately preceding instruction and applies to a specific type of resource, condition, etc.  ... ... ... ... (Visit the link to read complete article)

ISO 8601  ISO 8601 describes an internationally accepted way to represent dates and times using numbers. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times.  ... ... ... ... (Visit the link to read complete article)

Extended Date Time Format  The Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) is a draft date-time standard initiated by the Library of Congress with the intention of creating more explicit date formatting and addressing date types that are not currently regulated by ISO 8601. The date time format ISO 8601 describes a number of date/time features, some of which are redundant and/or not very useful, on the other hand, there are a number of date and time format conventions in common use that are not included in ISO 8601. ... ... ... ... (Visit the link to read complete article)

RESOURCE  work, expression, manifestation or item. The term includes not only an individual entity but also aggregates and components of such entities (e.g., three sheet maps, a single slide issued as part of a set of twenty, an article in an issue of a scholarly journal). It may refer to a tangible entity (e.g., a book, a DVD, an audiocassette, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, pamphlets, reports, newspapers, music scores, microfilm, microfiche etc. that are owned by a library) or an intangible entity (e.g., a website, blog, computer files, e-resources). ... ... ... (Visit the link to read complete article)

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