Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

  • What is LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings? 
  • What is the scope of Library of Congress Subject Headings? 
  • What is history Library of Congress Subject Headings? 
  • How LCSH is produced? 
  • Is LCSH a thesaurus? 
  • Where LCSH is applied? 
  • What is the cost of Library of Congress Subject Headings? 
  • How LCSH applies a syndetic structure? 
  • How LCSH is revised? 
  • What are the different types of headings in LCSH? 
  • How many headings are available in LCSH? 
  • How present LCSH is different from the previous LCSH? 
  • How to use in LCSH the names of persons and corporate bodies, jurisdictions and quasi-jurisdictional entities, and titles as subject headings? 
  • Where can we get free LCSH? 
  • What are the tools and resources for providing LCSH? 
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)


Library of Congress Subject Headings is the list of headings produced from the subject authority file maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records, and published annually. It is popularly known by its abbreviation as LCSH and is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase subject authority file.

Sunday, December 10, 2017


COMPASS (Computer Aided Subject System)


PRECIS  was intended to be a complete subject statement in a form suitable for a printed bibliography, and this was not necessarily the best format for online searching.

Saturday, December 9, 2017


BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework)
BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework)

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community.¹ 

Friday, December 1, 2017

How many entity groups does FRBR describe?


How many entity groups does FRBR describe?

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 6

(d) 4

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)

STATEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUING PRINCIPLES (ICP) 2016  by IFLA Cataloguing Section and IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code

The Raw Facts and Figures are Called?


The Raw Facts and Figures are Called?

(a) Intelligence

(b) Knowledge

(c) Information

(d) Data

Thursday, November 30, 2017



KNOWLEDGE  Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.



DATA  Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data is an anthropologist's handwritten note about his or her interviews with indigenous people. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Research is an effort?


Research is an effort?

(a) To discover knowledge

(b) To discover and develop knowledge

(c) To verify the knowledge

(d) To discover, develop, and verify knowledge



RESEARCH  Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

Friday, November 10, 2017




Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client-server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?


What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?

(a) Library functions

(b) Library operations

(c) Library automation

(d) Automatic library

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Library Automation

Library Automation

LIBRARY AUTOMATION  Library automation refers to the use of computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

What is a computer?


What is a computer?

(a) It is a manual machine

(b) It is a calculating machine

(c) It is an electronic calculating machine

(d) It is a simple machine

Monday, November 6, 2017



COMPUTER  Computer is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Saturday, November 4, 2017

What are the three levels of management?


What are the three levels of management? (What are the three levels of management in libraries)

(a) Top, middle, and bottom

(b) Top, middle, and lower

(c) First, second, and third

(d) Primary, secondary, and tertiary

Thursday, October 5, 2017


Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
MANAGEMENT  Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization.

Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) and Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.

Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:

  • Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors, a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization, set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers provide direction to the middle managers who report to them.
  • Middle managers, examples of which would include branch managers, regional managers and section managers, provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
  • Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.
In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.


The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories:
  • Top level / Administrative level
  • Middle level / Executory
  • Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board.

These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.


The top or senior layer of management consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. Different organizations have various members in their C-suite, which may include a Chief Financial Officer, Chief Technology Officer, and so on. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the operations of the entire organization. They set a "tone at the top" and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the overall direction of the organization. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Senior managers are accountable to the shareholders, the general public and to public bodies that oversee corporations and similar organizations. Some members of the senior management may serve as the public face of the organization, and they may make speeches to introduce new strategies or appear in marketing.

Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding of competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for implementing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and shareholder communication.


Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance.

Middle management is the midway management of a categorized organization, being secondary to the senior management but above the deepest levels of operational members. An operational manager may be well-thought-out by middle management, or may be categorized as non-management operate, liable to the policy of the specific organization. Efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization, since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.

Their functions include:
  • Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.
  • Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.
  • Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.
  • Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.

Lower managers include supervisors, section leaders, forepersons and team leaders. They focus on controlling and directing regular employees. They are usually responsible for assigning employees' tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring the quality and quantity of production and/or service, making recommendations and suggestions to employees on their work, and channeling employee concerns that they cannot resolve to mid-level managers or other administrators. First-level or "front line" managers also act as role models for their employees. In some types of work, front line managers may also do some of the same tasks that employees do, at least some of the time. For example, in some restaurants, the front line managers will also serve customers during a very busy period of the day.

Front-line managers typically provide:
  • Training for new employees
  • Basic supervision
  • Motivation
  • Performance feedback and guidance
Some front-line managers may also provide career planning for employees who aim to rise within the organization.


Managers can be categorized in a number of ways.  Most commonly, we think of them in vertical hierarchy. They usually work at three levels, viz. Top, Middle and Lower level of the organization. The Managers at top or nearer to the top have broader responsibilities and authority than those at lower levels.  According to Stueart and Moran, various organisations including libraries have three levels of management as under:
  • Top Management
  • Middle Management
  • Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

Top Management

It includes directors, associate directors and assistant directors in the large libraries. They are responsible to set policies for the entire organisation and are responsible for its overall management.  They act as leaders and have wide powers as wells responsibilities.

Middle Management 

They are in–charge of specific sub-units of the organization. In the libraries, they are heads of the department or Branch Librarians. Their responsibilities are confirmed to the successful functioning of the department concerned. They also serve as liaisons between top management and supervisors.

Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

They act as supervisors of the junior staff and lead the activities of individual workers in carrying out the day to day work of the organisation/library. These managers implement the procedures and processes that allow their units to work effectively and efficiently.
But the above mentioned hierarchy in the management is being distributed more widely throughout the organizations these days. This change can be seen in all types of organisations including libraries and information centres. The emphasis is being given to team work now-a-days.


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

  1. Wikipedia. Management. (accessed October 10, 2017)
  2. Levels of management. Management Study Guide (accessed October 10, 2017)



  • Written: 2017-10-06 


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What is information?


What is information?

(a) Explosion of knowledge

(b) Human knowledge

(c) Process of achieving knowledge

(d) Product of different types of human activities and events

Sunday, October 1, 2017


Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
INFORMATION  Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.

Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of anything. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.

Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a sequence of signals). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication.

Information reduces uncertainty. The uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that. The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used. For example, the information encoded in one "fair" coin flip is log2(2/1) = 1 bit, and in two fair coin flips is log2(4/1) = 2 bits.

The concept that information is the message has different meanings in different contexts.[3] Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

  1. Wikipedia. (accessed October 2, 2017)



  • Written: 2017-10-02 


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Reference service is the personal service to each reader in helping them to find the document - who gave this definition?


Reference service is the personal service to each reader in helping them to find the document - who gave this definition?

(a) M. Hutchins

(b) S. R. Ranganathan

(c) Lois Shores

(d) J. H. Shera

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Reference Service

Reference Service


S. R. Ranganathan defined Reference Service as "A Personal service to each reader in helping him to find the documents answering the interest at the moment pin-pointedly, exhaustively and expeditiously.

  • Library Reference Service 


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 


  • Salman Haider - Librarian Cataloger Author Blogger 

  • Written: 2017-09-26 


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Friday, September 22, 2017

Who categorized information sources into conventional, neo-conventional, non-conventional, and meta-documents?


Who categorized information sources into conventional, neo-conventional, non-conventional, and meta-documents?

(a) Bradford

(b) Ranganathan

(c) Hanson

(d) Grogan

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Sunday, September 17, 2017

What is FRBR?


What is FRBR?

(a) A content designation tool

(b) A data model

(c) A cataloging code or standard

(d) All of above

(e) None of above

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?


Important information and facts to remember covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of pieces of information in LIS will act not only as a ready reference knowledge bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world.

Did you know in LIS mentions and links to important information and facts which are provided as answers to the questions given in the article Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

A Featured LIS - Did You Know? appears first with a link to the original blog post for the question.

A syllabus is provided then, which divides the whole LIS field into XI units.

This is followed by Libary and Information Science - Did You Know? which are grouped under different units.


  • Top 10 Facts Did You Know in Library and Information Science (LIS)?
  • Library and Information Science Syllabus
  • Library and Information Science - Did You Know?



Unit I - Information and its Communication
  • Information, Information Science, Information Society 
  • Information as a Resource / Commodity 
  • Information Transfer Cycle--Generation, Collection, Storage, and Dissemination 
  • Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-Economic Development, Technology transfer
  • Communication--Channel, Barriers 
  • Intellectual Property Rights--Concept, Copyright, Censorship--Print and Non-print Media 
  • Library and Information Policy at the National Level
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
  • Laws of Library Science 
  • Library Resource Sharing and Networking 
  • Library Movement and Library Legislation 
  • Library Extension Services
  • Library and Information Science Education
  • Library and Information Profession
  • Library Associations in India, UK, and the USA, and other countries--ILA, IASLIC, IATLIS, SIS, LA, ASLIB, SLA and ALA
  • Library Associations OrganizationS at International Level--FID, IFLA, and UNESCO, etc.
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources
  • Sources of Information--Primary, Secondary and Tertiary--Documentary and Non-documentary
  • Reference Sources--Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources, Biographical sources, Year Books/Almanacs, Directories and Handbooks, Statistical (salient features and evaluation)
  • Bibliographical Sources--Bibliographies, Union Catalogues, Indexing and Abstracting Journals (salient features and evaluations)
  • E-documents, E-books, E-journals
  • Databases--Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text--Evaluation
Unit IV - Reference and Information Services
  • Reference and Information Services, Referral Service
  • Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest Service, Trend Report
  • Online Services, Translation Services, Reprographic Services
Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
  • Organization/Management of Knowledge/Information
  • Modes of formation of subjects
  • Library Classification--Cannon and Principles
  • Library Classification Schemes--DDC, UDC, CC, LCC, etc.
  • Library Cataloguing--Cannons and Principles
  • Library Cataloguing Codes--CCC, AACR-II, RDA, etc.
  • Bibliographic Records--International Standards--ISBD, MARC, CCF, BIBFRAME
  • Indexing--Pre-coordinate, Post-coordinate
  • Vocabulary Control--Thesaurus, List of Subject Headings, LCSH
  • Databases--Search Strategies, Boolean Operators
  • Knowledge Management
Unit VI - Library Management
  • Management--Principles, Functions, School of Thought
  • Planning, Organization Structure
  • Decision making
  • System Study--Analysis, Evaluation, and Design
  • Collection Development--Books, Serials, Non-book Materials--Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP)
  • Human Resources Management--Manpower Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation, Delegation of Authority
  • Financial Management--Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost Benefit Analysis
  • Library Buildings and Equipment
  • Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centers and Services
  • Marketing Information Product and Services
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
Unit VII - Computers and Information Technology
  • Information Technology--Components; Impact of IT on Society
  • Computers--Hardware, Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices
  • Telecommunication--Transmission media, Switching systems, Bandwidth, Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication
  • Fax, Email, Tele conferencing / video conferencing, Bulletin Board Service, Teletext, Videotex, Voice Mail
  • Networking--Concepts, Topologies, Types--LAN, MAN, WAN
  • Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia, 
  • Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnections (OSI)
Unit VIII - Information Systems and LIS Organizations and Networks
  • Library Automation--Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware, and Software Selection, OPAC
  • INTERNET--Components, Services, Browsing--Web Browsers, Search Engines, Meta-Data, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • National and International Information Systems--NISSAT, NASSDOC, INSDOC, DESIDOC, INIS, AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC, etc.
Unit IX - Research Methodology
  • Types of Research--Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary
  • Research Design
  • Scientific Method, Hypothesis, Data Collection, Sampling
  • Methods of Research--Historical, Descriptive, Case Study, Survey, Comparative and Experimental
  • Statistical Methods, Data Analysis
  • Report Writing
  • Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services
  • Bibliometrics
Unit X - Libraries and its Users
  • Types of Libraries--National, Public, Academic, and Special--Objectives, structures, and functions
  • Digital Libraries (Concept)
  • Virtual Libraries (Concept) 
  • Types of Users, User's Studies, User's Education 
  • Role of UGC in the Growth and Development of libraries and information centers in institutes of Higher Education in India, Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF).
  • Growth and development of libraries and information centers in different countries
Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics
  • Miscellaneous topics in LIS not covered by contents of Units I-X. 


Click the questions to view Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog article of the question with the answer and further study references.

Unit I - Information and its Communication
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources
Unit IV - Reference and Information Services
Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics



  • Last Updated: 2017-11-25
  • Written: 2017-09-17

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Saturday, September 9, 2017

Five Laws of Library Science

Five Laws of Library Science


The 5 Laws of Library Science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931.

These laws are:
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his / her book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

What is referred to raw data when they are processed and converted into meaningful form?


What is referred to raw data when they are processed and converted into meaningful form? 

(a) Knowledge

(b) Information

(c) Processed data

(d) Organized data

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records FRBR


Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR /ˈfɜːrbər/) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogs and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloging standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).

What does the acronym FRBR stand for?


What does the acronym FRBR stand for?

(a) Functional Requirements for Better Records

(b) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

(c) Functional Records for Big Research Libraries

Sunday, August 13, 2017

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)


PRECIS is an acronym for PREserved Context Index System or PREserved Context Indexing System. PRECIS is a computer assisted pre-coordinate subject indexing system developed by Derek Austin in 1968 as a result of long research which the Classification Research Group (CRG) undertook to give a new general classification for information control. In 1969 British librarians Derek Austin and Peter Butcher issued PRECIS: A rotated subject index system, published by the Council of the British National Bibliography. This appears to be the first published report on an innovative method for adding subject data in the form of descriptors to the computerized MARC record. This system is considered as the most important development in alphabetical approach to subject specification in recent years.

The system aims at providing an alphabetical subject index which is able to cater to the variant approaches of the users along with their context. In order to achieve this objective, the system arranges the components of a document,  into a significant sequence, thus, all the important components in the string are used as approach points. Simultaneously, the terms are displayed in such a fashion that every term is related to the next term in a context dependent way. Moreover, the system is amenable to computer operation, which further adds to the advantage of the system as the entries will be prepared and arranged automatically by the computer.


PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) 
  • Essential Features of PRECIS
  • Concept of PRECIS
  • PRECIS Indexing Procedure
  • Primary Operators
  • Secondary Operators
  • Primary Codes
  • Format of Entry
  • Filing Order
  • Conclusion

Essential Features of PRECIS

PRECIS  has the following important features:-
  1. The system derives headings that are co-extensive with the subject at all access points.
  2. It is not bound to any classification scheme.
  3. The terms are context dependent in nature, which enables the users to identify the entries correctly.
  4. The entries are generated automatically by the computer references between semantically related terms.
  5. It also provides an adequate arrangement of references between semantically related terms.
  6. It is a flexible system, as it is able to incorporate newly emerging terms accordingly.
  7. It has introduced the PRECIS  table which puts forth a set pattern for the preparation of entries, thus bringing about consistency in work.

Concept of PRECIS

The concept of PRECIS deals with terms, strings, and role operators.

Term: A term is a verbal representation of a concept. It may consist of one or more words.

String: An ordered sequence of component terms, excluding articles connectives, prepositions, etc., preceded by role operators is called a string. The string represents the subject of the document.

Role Operators: The Operators are the code symbols which show the function of the component term and fix its position in the strings. These role operators are meant for the guidance of the indexers only and do not appear in the index entry.

Preparation of String

The main or the most important activity in PRECIS indexing is the formation of the string. The preparation of string constitutes the following points:

(i)     Context dependence
(ii)    One-to-one relationship
(iii)   Provision of role operators

The component terms are arranged in such a way that they are context dependent, at the same time they are interrelated to each other.

PRECIS Indexing Procedure
  • Analyzing the document and identifying key concepts.
  • Organizing the concepts into a subject statement based on the principle of context dependency.
  • Assigning codes with signify the syntactical function of each term.
  • Deciding which terms should be access points and which terms would be in other positions in the index entries, and assigning further codes to achieve these results.
  • Adding further prepositions, auxiliaries, or phrases which would result in clarity and expressiveness of the resulting index entries.
  • Making supporting reference entries

Primary Operators

Environment of core concepts
  • 0 - Locations
Core concepts
  • 1 - Key system; Object of transitive action; Agent of transitive action
  • 2 - Action; Effect of action
  • 3 - Performer of transitive action
Extra-core concepts
  • 4 - View point -as-form
  • 5 - Selected instance; e.g. study region, sample population
  • 6 - Form of document; target user

Secondary Operators

Coordinate concepts
  • f - "Bound" coordinate concept
  • g - Standard coordinate concept
Dependent elements
  • p - Part; property
  • q - Member of quasi group
  • r - Assembly
Special class of action
  • s - Role identifier
  • t - Author attributed association
  • u - Two-way interaction

Primary Codes

Theme interlinks
  • $x - 1st concept in coordinate theme
  • $y - 2nd subsequent concept in theme
  • $z - Common concept
Term codes
  • $a - Common concept
  • $c - Proper name
  • $d - Place name

Format of Entry

There are three formats of making index entries through PRECIS
  1. Standard format
  2. Predicate transformation format
  3. Inverted format
Standard Format

In order to achieve the goal of context dependency and one-to-one relation, PRECIS has adopted a display format, which constitutes three parts:

Lead:  ‘Lead’ position serves as the users’ approach term, by which a user may search the index.

Qualifier: It represents the term or set of terms which qualifies the lead term to bring it into its proper context.It provides wider context to the lead term.

Display: It is the remaining part of the string which helps to preserve the context.

All the terms in the string are prepared using the PRECIS table, are then rotated according to a process known as ‘Shunting’. The structure adopted for the process is as follows:

 Lead Term                   Qualifier

The approach term is placed one by one in the lead term section, with the succeeding terms (if any) as the qualifier and the preceding terms (if any) in the display section, displaying the context of the terms.

Example: Computerisation of libraries in India
(0) India
(1) Libraries
(2) Computerisation

Libraries. Computerisation


3. COMPUTERISATION  Libraries. India

Predicate Transformation Format

The Predicate Transformation Format is used when the term representing an agent (3) appears as a lead term prefixed by one of the operators 2 or  s or  t.  When such a situation arises, 2 or s or t is shifted to Display position from the Qualifier position.

Inverted Format

PRECIS makes the use of inverted format when any term is provided the role operators (4), (5) or (6) and these terms appear as Lead terms. When it happens so, the dependent elements are presented in italics (or underlined if handwritten) after a hyphen and the terms in the Qualifier position are printed in the Display position.

Filing Order

PRECIS follows a two-line three-part format for the display of its entries, as a result, it follows a distinct filing order, within broad alphabetization. When a number of entries appear under similar lead terms, they are further arranged by the qualifiers as follows.

    LIBRARIES Bangladesh
Personnel.  Recruitment

Inter-Library Loans


PRECIS was first adopted by BNB, later on, a number of agencies went to accept the system. Among the other national bibliographies that adopted PRECIS are  Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa. Besides these, a number of libraries in Britain are practicing it. A number of pilot projects are also practicing and for creating indexes to statistical, public and other records. PRECIS was replaced at the British National Bibliography (BNB) by COMPASS in 1996, which was later replaced by Library of Congress Subject Headings.

  • Preserved Context Index System
  • Preserved Context Indexing System

  1. Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.) 


  • Salman Haider - Librarian Cataloger Author Blogger

  • Last Updated: 2018-05-24
  • Written 2017-08-12

  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. You can use the comments section below, or reach us on social media.

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources

Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources
Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources
100+ Most Important Resource Description and Access (RDA) Tools and Resources for Cataloging and Metadata Librarians and Catalogers. "Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources" is a collection of top free and paid cataloging and bibliographic metadata resources. 

Cataloger's Reference Directory

Cataloger's Reference Directory
Cataloger's Reference Directory
100+ Most Important Cataloging Tools and Resources for Cataloging and Metadata Librarians and Catalogers. Cataloger's Reference Directory is a collection of top free and paid cataloging and bibliographic metadata resources. It includes sources for descriptive cataloging, subject cataloging, authority control, classification, subject headings, subject indexing, and metadata description.

AACR2: Anglo American Cataloguing Rules (Home Page of Anglo American Cataloging Rules) [Online version of AACR2 is available through Cataloger's Desktop]
BC Geographical Names (BC Integrated Land Management Bureau)
Dewey Decimal Classification / Linked Data ( is an experimental space for linked DDC data. The intention of the prototype is to be a platform for Dewey data on the Web)
eCataloger [The eCataloger application provides cataloging utilities to create an eLibrary for an individual or small organization. The research goal of eCataloger is on creating semantic services for artifacts. It uses the FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) framework to model the records using data elements and concepts from the MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema), MARC, and other current and developing cataloging and metadata standards. By using FRBR as the descriptive framework, an overarching goal of the eCataloger is realized by being able to produce valid and well-formed MODS and MARC xml documents for interchange with existing and legacy library electronic systems]
European RDA Interest Group (Documents and Presentations)
Gateway to Library Catalogs - Z39.50 (Library of Congress WWW/Z39.50 Page for gateway access to LC's catalog and those at many other institutions)
IASA Cataloguing Rules (International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives)
LC : Catalogers Learning Workshop : Freely available cataloging and metadata training materials (Catalogers Learning Workshop (CLW) provides information professionals training resources related to the organization and classification of bibliographic information)
LC Classification : PDF Files from Library of Congress

  • F 010   General Principles of Classification (PDF, 106 KB)
  • F 050   Classification Proposals (PDF, 1.3 MB)  REVISED July 2014
  • F 060   Filing Rules (PDF, 106 KB)
  • F 130   Alternate Class Numbers: Analytics in Collected Sets (PDF, 141 KB)
  • F 150   Alternate Class Numbers: Bibliography (PDF, 146 KB)
  • F 170   Call Number Changes (PDF, 146 KB)
  • F 175   Editions (PDF, 109 KB)
  • F 180   Reserved Class Numbers (PDF, 76 KB)
  • F 185   Obsolete Class Numbers (PDF, 99 KB)
  • F 195   Subarrangement Within Disciplines (PDF, 148 KB)
  • F 210   Periodicals and Serials (PDF, 129 KB)
  • F 220   Periodicals: ".A" Cutters (PDF, 94 KB)
  • F 225   Societies (PDF, 114 KB)
  • F 230   Yearbooks (PDF, 94 KB)
  • F 240   Congresses (PDF, 123 KB)
  • F 250   Collected Works (Nonserial) (PDF, 112 KB)
  • F 275   Biography (PDF, 148 KB)
  • F 280   General Works (PDF, 126 KB)
  • F 290   General Special (PDF, 103 KB)
  • F 300   Addresses, Essays, Lectures (PDF, 106 KB)
  • F 320   Classification and Time Periods (PDF, 119 KB)
  • F 350   Cutter Numbers: Topical Cutters (PDF, 128 KB)
  • F 430   Cuttering by Region or Country, A-Z (PDF, 157 KB)
  • F 440   Providing Classification Information for Shelflisting (PDF, 141 KB)
  • F 475   Abridgments of Individual Works (PDF, 120 KB)
  • F 480   Abstracts (PDF, 121 KB)
  • F 495   Archival Inventories and Manuscript Catalogs (PDF, 118 KB)
  • F 520   Bound-with and Upside-down Books (PDF, 95 KB)
  • F 550   City Regions and Metropolitan Areas (PDF, 109 KB)
  • F 560   Cartographic Materials (PDF, 112 KB)
  • F 565   Comic Books and Graphic Novels (PDF, 130 KB)
  • F 570   Commentaries on Individual Works (PDF, 100 KB)
  • F 582   Discographies (PDF, 112 KB)
  • F 585   Dissertations and Theses (PDF, 94 KB)
  • F 587   Ethnic Groups (PDF, 109 KB)
  • F 590   Folklore and Folk Literature (PDF, 122 KB)
  • F 592   Foreign Relations (PDF, 132 KB)
  • F 595   Historic Preservation (PDF, 105 KB)
  • F 600   Genealogy (PDF, 106 KB)
  • F 603   Government Documents (PDF, 122 KB)
  • F 605   Government Officials' Biographies, Speeches, and Papers (PDF, 102 KB)
  • F 610   Indexes (PDF, 97 KB)
  • F 615   Juvenile Materials (PDF, 132 KB)
  • F 618   Legislative Hearings and Reports (PDF, 98 KB)
  • F 620   Library of Congress Publications (PDF, 102 KB)
  • F 630   Library and Archival Resources (PDF, 111 KB)
  • F 632   Literary Authors (PDF, 194 KB)
  • F 633   Literary Authors: Subarrangement of Works (PDF, 161 KB)
  • F 634   Literary Collections (PDF, 138 KB)
  • F 635   Local Court Records (PDF, 101 KB)
  • F 650   Microforms (PDF, 108 KB)
  • F 710   Software (PDF, 105 KB)
  • F 720   Supplementary Works (PDF, 134 KB)
  • F 730   Teaching of Particular Subjects (PDF, 109 KB)
  • F 750   Washington (D.C.) (PDF, 127 KB)
  • G 053   Determining the Call Number (PDF, 105 KB)
  • G 055   Call Numbers (PDF, 138 KB)
  • G 058   Interpreting the Classification Schedules (PDF, 218 KB)
  • G 063   Cutter Numbers (PDF, 172 KB)
  • G 065   Preferred Shelflist Order (PDF, 132 KB)
  • G 070   Input of LC Call Numbers/Copy Statements (050/051 Fields) (PDF, 146 KB)
  • G 100   Filing Rules (PDF, 187 KB)
  • G 140   Dates (PDF, 169 KB)
  • G 145   Editions (PDF, 121 KB)
  • G 150   Translations/Texts in Parallel Languages (PDF, 191 KB)
  • G 155   Supplementary Works (PDF, 146 KB)
  • G 180   Non-Literary Compilations (PDF, 121 KB)
  • G 220   Corporate Bodies (PDF, 183 KB)
  • G 230   Conferences, Congresses, Meetings, Etc. (PDF, 165 KB)
  • G 240   Societies (PDF, 134 KB)
  • G 300   Regions and Countries Table (PDF, 62 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • G 302   U.S. States and Canadian Provinces (PDF, 129 KB)
  • G 320   Biography (PDF, 170 KB)
  • G 330   Artists (PDF, 129 KB)
  • G 340   Criticism/Commentaries (PDF, 27 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • G 350   Title Work Letters in Subclass PZ (PDF, 131 KB)
  • G 605   LC-Specific Information (PDF, 108 KB)
  • G 610   Basic Shelflisting Procedures (PDF, 156 KB)
  • G 615   Designations for Volume, Part, Etc. (PDF, 106 KB)
  • G 620   Assignment/Location of Materials (PDF, 165 KB)
  • G 622   Assignment/Location of Materials: Asian and AMED (PDF, 165 KB)
  • G 630   Reference Assignments (PDF, 101 KB)
  • G 640   Forwarding Items to the Dewey Section (PDF, 112 KB)
  • G 660   Historical and Obsolete Legends and Symbols (PDF, 161 KB)
  • G 670   Shelflist Information Card (SLIC) (PDF, 181 KB)
  • G 750   Law and Legal Materials: General (PDF, 146 KB)
  • G 760   Law and Legal Materials: Superseded Materials (PDF, 74 KB)
  • G 800   Music Materials (PDF, 187 KB)
  • G 810   Rare Materials (PDF, 142 KB)

ILS Locations Authority File [On LC staff intranet only] - The Locations Authority File (LAF) lists locations and sublocations valid for use in LC Online Catalog records. Note: Take this as alternative for "Table of Abbreviations to be Used for Asian Languages".

LC Classification Web (Library of Congress Classification)
Classification Web [Navigating in the Classification Web] (Classification Web provides catalogers with online full-text display of all Library of Congress classification schedules--including G class geographic cutters, and complete Library of Congress subject headings. Correlations among LC classification numbers, LC subject headings and Dewey classification numbers are also readily available.
In this Quick Tip, designed and developed by Library of Congress's Instructional Design and Training Division for the Cataloging Distribution Service, you will learn how toNavigate in Classification Web in 3-4 minutes.)


LC DCM : Descriptive Cataloging Manual (The DCM is an in-house manual containing the procedures followed by catalogers at the Library of Congress. The chapters that related to the establishment of name and series authority records, however, are used by CONSER members and other participating in cooperative programs.) [Online version of AACR2 is available through Cataloger's Desktop]

LC DCM : LC DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGING MANUAL (The LC Local Bibliographic Record and Local Data Fields - Elements in the LC Local Bibliographic Record for Monographs and Integrating Resources)

LC Filing Rules [Complete rules available through Cataloger's Desktop]
LCSH : Introduction to Library of Congress Subject Headings

LCSH : This page provides print-ready PDF files from the 34th Edition of the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH).

H 0000

  • H 0040   Library of Congress Subject Authority Records (PDF, 137 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0080   Order of Subject Headings (PDF, 20 KB)

H 0100

  • H 0150   Partial Title Added Entries (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 0160   Uncontrolled Subject Terms in the 653 Field (PDF, 42 KB)
  • H 0165   Subject Heading Changes in Bibliographic Records (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 0170   CONSER & BIBCO Standard Records (PDF, 131 KB)
  • H 0175   Editions (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 0178   Serials (PDF, 20 KB)
  • H 0180   Assigning and Constructing Subject Headings (PDF, 62 KB)
  • H 180 Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing [Librarianship Studies]
  • H 0181   Arabic/Persian Subject Headings (PDF, 61 KB)
  • H 0182   Chinese/Japanese/Korean Subject Headings (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 0184   Subject Headings Identical to Descriptive Access Points (PDF, 23 KB)
  • H 0187   When to Establish a New Topical Heading (PDF, 19 KB)
  • H 0193   Changing a Heading or Deleting a Subject Authority Record (PDF, 178 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0193.5   Deleted Heading Information (PDF, 29 KB)  REVISED April 2015
  • H 0194   Providing for Geographic Subdivision of Existing Subject Headings (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 0195   Changing References in Subject Authority Records (PDF, 31 KB)
  • H 0196   Changing Class Numbers in Subject Authority Records (PDF, 21 KB)

H 0200

  • H 0200   Preparation of Subject Heading Proposals (PDF, 106 KB)  REVISED February 2015
  • H 0202   Authority Research for Subject Heading Proposals (PDF, 71 KB)
  • H 0203   Citation of Sources (PDF, 216 KB)
  • H 0205   Establishing New Subdivisions Having General Application (PDF, 22 KB)
  • H 0250   Music Heading Authority Records (PDF, 213 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0285   Singular vs. Plural Forms in Subject Headings (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 0290   Articles in the Initial Position (PDF, 24 KB)

H 0300

  • H 0306   Natural Language in Topical Subject Headings (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 0310   [ . . . ] and [ . . . ]Headings (PDF, 57 KB)
  • H 0315   Foreign Terms (PDF, 20 KB)
  • H 0320   Headings Qualified by Nationality, Ethnic Group, Language, etc. (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 0350   Nationality Designation of Classes of Persons (PDF, 168 KB)
  • H 0351   Ethnic Qualifiers (PDF, 29 KB)
  • H 0357   Parenthetical Qualifiers in Subject Headings (PDF, 49 KB)
  • H 0360   [ . . . ] as [ . . . ]Headings (PDF, 43 KB)
  • H 0362   Free-Floating Terms and Phrases (PDF, 53 KB)
  • H 0364   Authorization for Geographic Subdivision (PDF, 170 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0365   Library of Congress Classification Numbers in Subject Authority Records(PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 0370   Broader Terms, Narrower Terms, and Related Terms (PDF, 101 KB)
  • H 0371   General See Also References (PDF, 80 KB)
  • H 0373   "Used for" References (PDF, 76 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 0374   General See References (PDF, 27 KB)
  • H 0375   [Topic]C[Place] Broader Term References (PDF, 23 KB)

H 0400

  • H 0400   Scope Notes (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 0405   Establishing Certain Entities in the Name or Subject Authority File (PDF, 55 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 0430   Name Headings as Subjects (PDF, 161 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0432   Subject Usage Information in Name Authority Records (PDF, 20 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 0436   Provisional Name Headings (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 0460   Name Changes in Non-Jurisdictional Corporate Bodies (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 0475   Subdividing Corporate Name Headings by Place (PDF, 144 KB)  REVISED September 2013

H 0600

  • H 0620   Chronological Headings and Subdivision (PDF, 67 KB)
  • H 0690   Formulating Geographic Headings (PDF, 66 KB)  REVISED June 2014

H 0700

  • H 0708   Linear Jurisdictional Name Changes in Name Authority Records (PDF, 129 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0710   Jurisdictional Mergers and Splits (PDF, 28 KB)
  • H 0713   First Order Political Divisions of Countries (PDF, 30 KB)
  • H 0715   Extinct Cities (PDF, 167 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0720   City Sections (PDF, 121 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0760   Geographic Regions (PDF, 164 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0790   Areas Associated with Cities (PDF, 54 KB)

H 0800

  • H 0800   Rivers, Valleys, Watersheds, etc. (PDF, 57 KB)  REVISED May 2015
  • H 0807   Islands (PDF, 173 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0810   Qualification of Geographic Headings (PDF, 57 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 0830   Geographic Subdivision (PDF, 215 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0832   Geographic Subdivision to the City Level (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 0835   Geographic Subdivision Information in Name Authority Records (PDF, 29 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 0836   Geographic Subdivision Information in Subject Authority Records (PDF, 35 KB)
  • H 0860   Subdivisions Further Subdivided by Place (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 0870   Interposition of Geographic Subdivisions (PDF, 167 KB)

H 0900

  • H 0910   Place as a Theme in Art, Literature, Motion Pictures, etc. (PDF, 161 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0925   China and Taiwan (PDF, 161 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 0928   Congo (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 0945   Germany (PDF, 28 KB)
  • H 0955   Great Britain (PDF, 53 KB)
  • H 0975   Hawaii (PDF, 43 KB)
  • H 0978   Hong Kong (PDF, 36 KB)
  • H 0980   Jerusalem, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, West Bank, and Palestine (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 0985   Latin America (PDF, 138 KB)
  • H 0987   Malaysia and Malaya (PDF, 46 KB)
  • H 0990   New York (N.Y.) (PDF, 26 KB)

H 1000

  • H 1023   Soviet Union (PDF, 38 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 1045   Vatican City (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1050   Washington (D.C.) (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1055   Yugoslavia (PDF, 20 KB)  REVISED May 2015
  • H 1075   Subdivisions (PDF, 64 KB)
  • H 1078   Dates in Subdivisions for Specific Events (PDF, 27 KB)
  • H 1090   Multiple Subdivisions (PDF, 49 KB)
  • H 1095   Free-floating subdivisions (PDF, 240 KB)  REVISED April 2015

H 1100

  • H 1100   Classes of Persons (PDF, 93 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 1103   Ethnic Groups (PDF, 63 KB)  REVISED November 2014
  • H 1105   Corporate Bodies (PDF, 157 KB)
  • H 1110   Names of Persons (PDF, 118 KB)  REVISED April 2015
  • H 1120   Names of Families (PDF, 27 KB)
  • H 1140   Names of Places (PDF, 178 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1145.5   Bodies of Water (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1146   Subdivisions Controlled by Pattern Headings (PDF, 172 KB)
  • H 1147   Animals (PDF, 49 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 1148   Art (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 1149   Chemicals (PDF, 47 KB)
  • H 1149.5   Colonies (PDF, 27 KB)
  • H 1150   Diseases (PDF, 42 KB)
  • H 1151   Individual Educational Institutions (PDF, 138 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1151.5   Types of Educational Institutions (PDF, 35 KB)
  • H 1153   Industries (PDF, 42 KB)
  • H 1154   Languages (PDF, 182 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1154.5   Legal Topics (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1155   Legislative Bodies (PDF, 34 KB)
  • H 1155.2   Groups of Literary Authors (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 1155.6   Literary Works Entered Under Author (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1155.8   Literary Works Entered Under Title (PDF, 137 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1156   Literatures (PDF, 50 KB)  REVISED May 2015
  • H 1158   Materials (PDF, 31 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 1159   Military Services (PDF, 76 KB)
  • H 1160   Musical Compositions (PDF, 56 KB)  REVISED September 2014
  • H 1161   Musical Instruments (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 1164   Organs and Regions of the Body (PDF, 50 KB)
  • H 1180   Plants and Crops (PDF, 58 KB)  REVISED November 2014
  • H 1185   Religions (PDF, 31 KB)
  • H 1186   Religious and Monastic Orders (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 1187   Christian Denominations (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1188   Sacred Works (PDF, 170 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1195   Land Vehicles (PDF, 40 KB)  REVISED February 2015

H 1200

  • H 1200   Wars (PDF, 58 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 1205   Abstracts (PDF, 25 KB)
  • H 1206.5   Acronyms (PDF, 37 KB)
  • H 1210   Addresses, Essays, Lectures (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 1210.5   Aerial and Space Photography (PDF, 25 KB)
  • H 1211   Airports (PDF, 25 KB)
  • H 1223   Arabs (PDF, 18 KB)
  • H 1225   Archaeological Works (PDF, 64 KB)
  • H 1230   Archives and Archival Resources (PDF, 143 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1250   Art and Fine Art (PDF, 92 KB)
  • H 1255   Artistic Photography (PDF, 49 KB)
  • H 1265   Awards (PDF, 155 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1285   Battles (PDF, 162 KB)
  • H 1295   Bible: Special Topics (PDF, 159 KB)  REVISED September 2013

H 1300

  • H 1300   Bible and Other Sacred Works (PDF, 150 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1322   Bibliographies about Individual Persons (PDF, 30 KB)
  • H 1325   Bibliography of Bibliographies (PDF, 35 KB)
  • H 1328   Bio-bibliography (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1330   Biography (PDF, 172 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1332   Biological Names (PDF, 51 KB)  REVISED February 2015
  • H 1333   Books and Reading (PDF, 46 KB)
  • H 1333.5   Boundaries (PDF, 37 KB)
  • H 1334   Buildings and Other Structures (PDF, 253 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1334.5   Buildings and Structures in Cities: Assignment of Headings (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 1350   Case Studies and Cases (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1360   Catalogs (PDF, 30 KB)
  • H 1361   Catalogs of Library Materials (PDF, 65 KB)
  • H 1365   Cemeteries (PDF, 126 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1366   Census (PDF, 161 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1366.5   Choreographic Works (PDF, 87 KB)  NEW April 2015
  • H 1367   Chronology (PDF, 153 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1370   Civilization (PDF, 58 KB)

H 1400

  • H 1412   Classical and Ancient Workss (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1425   Collected Works and Collections (PDF, 26 KB)
  • H 1427   Collections of Objects (PDF, 173 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1430   Comics and Comic Characters (PDF, 176 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1435   Commentaries on Individual Works (PDF, 181 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1438   Composers and Works about Music of Individual Composers (PDF, 154 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1460   Congresses (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1465   Constitutions (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 1468   Contracts (PDF, 25 KB)
  • H 1472   Controversial Literature (PDF, 138 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1475   Cooking and Cookbooks (PDF, 65 KB)
  • H 1480   Correspondence of Individual Persons (PDF, 58 KB)

H 1500

  • H 1510   Cross-Cultural Studies (PDF, 36 KB)
  • H 1520   Databases (PDF, 65 KB)
  • H 1530   Description and Travel (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 1532   Design and Construction (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 1538   Diaries (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1540   Dictionaries (PDF, 195 KB)
  • H 1550   Digests (PDF, 34 KB)
  • H 1558   Directories (PDF, 50 KB)
  • H 1560   Disasters, Riots, Demonstrations, etc. (PDF, 67 KB)
  • H 1564   Discovery and Exploration (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 1570   Dissertations and Theses (PDF, 43 KB)
  • H 1572   Dwellings with Extensive Grounds (PDF, 146 KB)  NEW September 2013
  • H 1574   Dynasties, Royal Houses, etc. (PDF, 167 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1576   Early Works (PDF, 49 KB)
  • H 1578   Economic Conditions (PDF, 43 KB)
  • H 1579   Education (PDF, 50 KB)
  • H 1580   Effect of One Topic on Another (PDF, 31 KB)
  • H 1580.5   Electronic Serials (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 1581   Emigration and Immigration (PDF, 53 KB)
  • H 1591   Evaluation (PDF, 44 KB)
  • H 1592   Events (PDF, 231 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1593   Exhibitions (PDF, 161 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1595   Facsimiles (PDF, 138 KB)  REVISED September 2013

H 1600

  • H 1600   Festschriften (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 1610   Fictitious Characters (PDF, 31 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 1624   Finance (PDF, 29 KB)
  • H 1627   Folklore (PDF, 190 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1628   Forecasting (PDF, 46 KB)
  • H 1629   Foreign Relations (PDF, 148 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1630   Gazetteers (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 1631   Genealogy and Family Names (PDF, 186 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1635   Gods and Mythological Figures (PDF, 52 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 1636   Gods of Greek and Roman Mythology (PDF, 85 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1642   Government Policy (PDF, 141 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1643   Government Publications (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1645   Guidebooks (PDF, 49 KB)
  • H 1646   Handbooks, Manuals, etc. (PDF, 37 KB)
  • H 1647   History (PDF, 45 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 1659   Illustrations (PDF, 153 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1660   Imprints (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 1670   Indexes (PDF, 48 KB)
  • H 1673   Industries Based on Products (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 1675   Influence of One Topic on Another (PDF, 52 KB)
  • H 1675.5   Information Services (PDF, 36 KB)
  • H 1676   Inquisition (PDF, 129 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1676.5   Inspection (PDF, 23 KB)
  • H 1678   Interviews (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1680   Islam (PDF, 23 KB)
  • H 1690   Juvenile Materials (PDF, 4143 KB)

H 1700

  • H 1705   Legal Materials: Law and Legislation and Other Subdivisions (PDF, 17 KB)  REVISED January 2014
  • H 1710   Legal Materials: Legal Research (PDF, 26 KB)
  • H 1715   Legal Materials: Legislation (PDF, 147 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1718   Legal Materials: Systems of Law (PDF, 35 KB)
  • H 1720   Legends and Stories about Animals (PDF, 142 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1775   Literature: General (PDF, 152 KB)
  • H 1780   Literature: Drama (PDF, 153 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1790   Literature: Fiction (PDF, 52 KB)  REVISED June 2014
  • H 1795   Literature: Legends and Romances (PDF, 56 KB)  REVISED June 2014

H 1800

  • H 1800   Literature: Poetry (PDF, 45 KB)
  • H 1828   Literature from One Place in Multiple Languages (PDF, 37 KB)
  • H 1845   Local History and Genealogical Source Materials (PDF, 50 KB)
  • H 1848   Longitudinal Studies (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1855   Manuscripts (PDF, 223 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1865   Maps and Atlases (PDF, 29 KB)
  • H 1870   Marketing (PDF, 22 KB)
  • H 1890   Mental Health and Mental Health Services (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1893   Microforms (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 1895   Miniature Books (PDF, 37 KB)

H 1900

  • H 1910   Miscellanea (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1913   Moving Image Genre/Form Terms (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 1916   Museums (PDF, 138 KB)
  • H 1916.3   Music: General (PDF, 75 KB)
  • H 1916.5   Music: Jazz and Popular Music (PDF, 35 KB)
  • H 1917   Music of Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups (PDF, 76 KB)
  • H 1917.5   Music Form/Genre Headings: Medium of Performance (PDF, 324 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1918   Musical Instruments (PDF, 71 KB)
  • H 1919   Name and Names (PDF, 28 KB)
  • H 1919.5   Nationalities (PDF, 59 KB)
  • H 1920   Newspapers on Special Topics and Ethnic Newspapers (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 1925   Parks, Reserves, National Monuments, etc. (PDF, 201 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1927   Periodicals (PDF, 136 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1928   Personal Narratives (PDF, 51 KB)
  • H 1929   Philosophy (PDF, 23 KB)
  • H 1935   Pictorial Works (PDF, 47 KB)
  • H 1942   Politics and Government (PDF, 163 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1943.5   Popular Works (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1945   Postage Stamps on Specific Topics (PDF, 47 KB)
  • H 1945.5   Posters (PDF, 40 KB)
  • H 1949   Professional Ethics (PDF, 23 KB)
  • H 1955   Public Opinion (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 1965   Publishers' Catalogs (PDF, 32 KB)
  • H 1969   Quotations and Maxims (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 1969.5   Radio Genre/Form Terms (PDF, 162 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1970   Railroads (PDF, 141 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1975   Readers (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 1980   Reference Books (PDF, 46 KB)
  • H 1995   Regimental Histories (PDF, 135 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1996   Relations and Military Relations (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 1997   Religion (PDF, 158 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 1998   Religious Aspects of Topics (PDF, 62 KB)

H 2000

  • H 2015   Religious Denominations or Religions as Subdivisions (PDF, 51 KB)
  • H 2015.5   Religious Life (PDF, 31 KB)
  • H 2016   Religious Life and Customs (PDF, 26 KB)
  • H 2020   Research (PDF, 28 KB)
  • H 2021   Reviews (PDF, 41 KB)
  • H 2032   Sermons (PDF, 151 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2040   Simulation Methods in Special Fields (PDF, 24 KB)
  • H 2055   Social Conditions (PDF, 43 KB)
  • H 2057   Social Life and Customs (PDF, 38 KB)
  • H 2060   Societies (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 2070   Software and Works about Software (PDF, 158 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2075   Songs and Music (PDF, 169 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2080   Sources (PDF, 53 KB)
  • H 2083   Specifications (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 2095   Statistics (PDF, 42 KB)
  • H 2098   Streets and Roads (PDF, 55 KB)

H 2100

  • H 2100   Strikes and Lockouts (PDF, 186 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2110   Study and Teaching (PDF, 171 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2145   Supplementary Works (PDF, 21 KB)
  • H 2149   Surveys (PDF, 29 KB)
  • H 2160   Tables (PDF, 33 KB)
  • H 2184   Terms and Phrases (PDF, 39 KB)
  • H 2185   Territories and Possessions (PDF, 136 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2186   Testing (PDF, 175 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2187   Textbooks (PDF, 42 KB)
  • H 2190   Texts (PDF, 40 KB)

H 2200

  • H 2217   Training (PDF, 45 KB)
  • H 2219   Translating (PDF, 26 KB)
  • H 2220   Translations (PDF, 142 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2225   Transportation (PDF, 31 KB)
  • H 2227   Treaties (PDF, 50 KB)
  • H 2228   Trials (PDF, 65 KB)
  • H 2230   Visual Materials and Non-Music Sound Recordings (PDF, 155 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • H 2232   Vocational Guidance (PDF, 26 KB)

H 2400; Glossary and Appendices

  • H 2400   Yearbooks (PDF, 22 KB)
  • Glossary (PDF, 129 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • Appendix A   Abbreviations (PDF, 176 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • Appendix B   Capitalization (PDF, 203 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • Appendix C   Diacritics and Special Characters (PDF, 234 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • Appendix D   Punctuation (PDF, 153 KB)  REVISED September 2013
  • Appendix E   Geographic Area Codes (PDF, 49 KB)  REVISED May 2015
  • Appendix F   Subject-Related Codes in Field 008 - Books (PDF, 36 KB)
  • Appendix G   Subject-Related Codes in Field 008 - Continuing Resources (Serials)(PDF, 28 KB)


Map Cataloging Manual [Also available through Cataloger's Desktop]
OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards
OCLC Classify (An experimental classification web service) (About Classify: Classify is a FRBR-based prototype designed to support the assignment of classification numbers and subject headings for books, DVDs, CDs, and other types of materials)
World Factbook (information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 266 world entities)


  • Last Updated: 2018-05-19
  • Written: 2017-08-05


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