Wednesday, March 30, 2016

RDA Exceptions : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Resource Description and Access RDA Alternatives Options Exceptions
Resource Description and Access (RDA) Exceptions
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
RDA EXCEPTIONS  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as exceptions. Some instructions are scoped as being applicable only to certain types of resources (such as serials). An exception is an instruction that takes precedence over the immediately preceding instruction and applies to a specific type of resource, condition, etc. Here in RDA Toolkit, a LC-PCC PS appears which suggests the LC practice is to apply the guidelines in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B)) for books published before 1801 and selected early 19th century resources instead of RDA rules. Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional considerations. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.

Example of RDA Exceptions 

RDA rule 2.3.2.5 is for Title in More Than One Form. After the instructions and example, an exception to this rules appears as for Serials and integrating resources, which suggests “If the title of a serial or integrating resource appears on the source of information for the title proper in full as well as in the form of an acronym or initialism, choose the full form as the title proper.” (Click on the image to enlarge)
RDA Exceptions
RDA Exceptions - Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org)


Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know

RDA contains a number of guidelines and instructions that are marked as alternatives, options (optional additions, optional omissions), and exceptions. Each of these is clearly identified by an italicized label, which in the RDA Toolkit appears in green color in the instruction (alternative, optional addition, optional omission, exception). A green vertical bar also appears in the left margin next of an alternative, optional, or exceptional instruction in RDA Toolkit. These allow individual libraries or cataloging agencies to make decisions based on individual considerations in cases where two or more provisions are equally valid. Guidelines for alternatives and options are provided in RDA rule 0.8, and instructions for applying exceptions is at RDA 0.9 of chapter 0. 

How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?

Whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions is cataloger judgment, unless an LC practice has been identified in an LC-PCC PS (for LC catalogers). Each library or cataloging agency must decide whether or not to use each of these alternatives and options. This can be done by choosing one or more of the following approaches: (a) Establishing local policies for all options and alternatives, or (b) Establishing local policies for some, but not all, options and alternatives, or (c) Following the policy statements of other libraries and programs, such as the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) or British Library Policy Statements (BL PS), or (d) Allowing individual catalogers to use their judgement who are responsible for creating the metadata for the bibliographic items.

Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional clarification. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.


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  • Last Updated: 2017-12-24 
  • Written: 2016-03-30

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RDA Options : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Resource Description and Access RDA Alternatives Options Exceptions
Resource Description and Access (RDA) Options
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
RDA OPTIONS  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as options. Options appear in two forms in RDA, viz. optional additions and optional omissions. The optional addition of data that supplement what is called for in the immediately preceding instruction, or the optional omission of specific data called for in the immediately preceding instruction. Hence, it can be said that optional instruction offers the opportunity to either supplement required data with additional information (metadata), or omit data from what is instructed in the preceding rules. Here it is important to note that each library or cataloging agency can decide when or whether to follow the options or just follow the rules in the immediately preceding instruction. They may choose to establish their own policies and guidelines on the application of the options or leave decisions on the use of options to the cataloger’s judgment. 

Example of RDA Optional Additions 

RDA rule 2.8.6.3 is for Recording Date of Publication. Here an optional addition instruction appears after the examples which say “If the date as it appears in the resource is not of the Gregorian or Julian calendar, add the corresponding date or dates of the Gregorian or Julian calendar. Indicate that the information was taken from a source outside the resource itself.” Just after the label Optional Addition, there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Optional addition: Add the corresponding date or dates of the Gregorian or Julian calendar. If dates have been recorded using the Hebrew script, the Gregorian or Julian calendar date may be added in both the non-Latin and romanized field or only the romanized field.” (Click on the image to enlarge)
RDA OPTIONAL ADDITION
RDA Optional Additions - Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org)


Example of RDA Optional Omissions

RDA rule 2.4.1.5 is for Statement Naming More Than One Person, etc. Here an optional addition instruction appears after the examples which say “If a single statement of responsibility names more than three persons, families, or corporate bodies performing the same function (or with the same degree of responsibility), omit any but the first of each group of such persons, families, or bodies... If you observe the screen image of RDA Toolkit, just after the label Optional Omission there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Optional omission: Generally, do not omit names in a statement of responsibility.” (Click on the image to enlarge)
RDA Optional Omissions
RDA Optional Omissions - Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org)


Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know

RDA contains a number of guidelines and instructions that are marked as alternatives, options (optional additions, optional omissions), and exceptions. Each of these is clearly identified by an italicized label, which in the RDA Toolkit appears in green color in the instruction (alternative, optional addition, optional omission, exception). A green vertical bar also appears in the left margin next of an alternative, optional, or exceptional instruction in RDA Toolkit. These allow individual libraries or cataloging agencies to make decisions based on individual considerations in cases where two or more provisions are equally valid. Guidelines for alternatives and options are provided in RDA rule 0.8, and instructions for applying exceptions is at RDA 0.9 of chapter 0. 


How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?

Whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions is cataloger judgment, unless an LC practice has been identified in an LC-PCC PS (for LC catalogers). Each library or cataloging agency must decide whether or not to use each of these alternatives and options. This can be done by choosing one or more of the following approaches: (a) Establishing local policies for all options and alternatives, or (b) Establishing local policies for some, but not all, options and alternatives, or (c) Following the policy statements of other libraries and programs, such as the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) or British Library Policy Statements (BL PS), or (d) Allowing individual catalogers to use their judgement who are responsible for creating the metadata for the bibliographic items.

Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional clarification. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.


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  • Last Updated: 2017-12-24 
  • Written: 2016-03-30

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Monday, March 28, 2016

RDA Alternatives : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Resource Description and Access RDA Alternatives Options Exceptions
Resource Description and Access (RDA) Alternatives
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

RDA ALTERNATIVES   In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as alternatives. Alternative guidelines and instructions in Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide an alternative approach to what is specified in the immediately preceding guideline or instruction. A cataloger can choose to follow the rule or the alternative

Example of RDA Alternatives 

At RDA 2.3.2.9: Resource Lacking a Collective Title, the general instruction states: “If: the type of description chosen for the resource is a comprehensive description and the resource lacks a collective title then: record the titles proper of the parts as they appear on the source of information for the resource as a whole … …” Immediately after the examples, an alternative is given as: “Devise a collective title by applying the instructions … If considered important for identification or access, record the titles of individual parts as the titles proper of related manifestations …” If you observe the screen image of RDA Toolkit, just after the label Alternative there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Alternative: Generally, do not apply.” So according to LC-PCC PS on the alternative instruction, the cataloger should not devise a collective title in this case.
RDA ALTERNATIVES
RDA Alternatives - Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org)

Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know

RDA contains a number of guidelines and instructions that are marked as alternatives, options (optional additions, optional omissions), and exceptions. Each of these is clearly identified by an italicized label, which in the RDA Toolkit appears in green color in the instruction (alternative, optional addition, optional omission, exception). A green vertical bar also appears in the left margin next of an alternative, optional, or exceptional instruction in RDA Toolkit. These allow individual libraries or cataloging agencies to make decisions based on individual considerations in cases where two or more provisions are equally valid. Guidelines for alternatives and options are provided in RDA rule 0.8, and instructions for applying exceptions is at RDA 0.9 of chapter 0. 

How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?

Whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions is cataloger judgment, unless an LC practice has been identified in an LC-PCC PS (for LC catalogers). Each library or cataloging agency must decide whether or not to use each of these alternatives and options. This can be done by choosing one or more of the following approaches: (a) Establishing local policies for all options and alternatives, or (b) Establishing local policies for some, but not all, options and alternatives, or (c) Following the policy statements of other libraries and programs, such as the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) or British Library Policy Statements (BL PS), or (d) Allowing individual catalogers to use their judgement who are responsible for creating the metadata for the bibliographic items.

Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional clarification. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.


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  • Alternatives in RDA

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  • Last Updated: 2017-12-24 
  • Written: 2016-03-28

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Sunday, March 20, 2016

Core Elements (RDA)

RDA Core Elements
RDA Core Elements
CORE ELEMENTS (RDA)

Core elements in Resource Description & Access (RDA) are minimum elements required for describing resources. Core elements are a new feature of RDA which allowed for certain metadata elements to be identified as “required” in the cataloging process. The assignment of core status is based on attributes mandatory for a national level record, as documented in the FRBR/FRAD modules. At a minimum, a bibliographic description should include all the required core elements that are applicable. Core-ness is identified at the element level. Some elements are always core (if applicable and the information is available); some are core only in certain situations. Core elements are identified in two ways within RDA. The first is that all core elements are discussed in general, and listed as a group, in the sub-instructions of "RDA 0.6: Core Elements". In the separate chapters, the core elements are also identified individually by the label “CORE ELEMENT” at the beginning of the instructions for each element. They are clearly labeled in light blue at each core instruction in RDA Toolkit.  If the status of an element as core depends upon the situation, an explanation appears after the “Core element” label.

Saturday, March 5, 2016

Librarian : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Librarian
Librarian
Definition of a Librarian and 11 Excellent Infographics About The Librarian highlighting their duties, functions, roles, responsibilities, worth, and importance, with interesting facts and figures.

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

LIBRARIAN
  A librarian is a person who is in charge of or works professionally in a library and is responsible for its management and services. Librarian takes care of the library and its resources. Typical job of a librarian includes managing collection development and acquisitions, cataloging, collections management, circulation, and providing a range of services, such as reference, information, instruction, and training services, etc.

Librarians are trained in library and information science and are engaged in providing library services, usually holding a degree in library science. In the United States, the title Librarian is reserved for persons who have been awarded the ALA-accredited Master of Library and Information Science or MLIS degree or certified as professionals by a state agency.

In a small library, such as a school library a single librarian may be responsible for managing the overall functions of the library but big libraries, such as a large academic library may have much staff to carry out different functions of the library depending on their qualifications, expertise, and functional specializations, e.g. acquisition librarian, archivists, cataloging librarian, electronic resources librarian, metadata librarian, reference librarian, serials librarian, systems librarian, etc. Based on the type of the library served, librarians may be classified as a school librarian, academic librarian, special librarian, etc.

The increasing role of technology in libraries has a significant impact on the changing roles of librarians. A 21st-century librarian is required to be very much updated of technological changes. New age librarians are making greater use of emerging technologies in the library management and services to make it more popular and useful among the patrons. New age librarians are not mere bookworms, they are high-tech information professionals, and clever communicators, helping patrons dive in the oceans of information available in books and digital records.

The following section highlights a librarian's duties, functions, roles, responsibilities, worth, importance, with interesting facts and figures:
  • Librarians are regular people who have interests in all sorts of different thing. Strong libraries build strong students and it is the librarian who actually manages the functions and services of the library. In an academic setup students performance improves significantly with high librarian collaboration.
  • A modern librarian may deal with the provision of acquisition, maintenance, and dissemination of information in many formats, viz. books, ebooks, serials, sound recordings, moving images, video recordings, manuscripts, cartographic materials, computer files, photographs and other graphic materials, databases, and digital resources, etc.
  • Collection Development and Acquisitions: Selection and ordering of resource according to the collection development policy of the library and evaluating needs of patrons, receiving resources,  paying invoices, managing acquisitions of resources through purchase, subscription, license, gifts, and donations, and weeding out unrequired items.
  • Cataloging and Metadata: Descriptive cataloging, subject cataloging, and authority control, that will enable discovery of library resources online, providing metadata for digital resources.
  • Collections Management: Stamping the resources indicating the ownership of the library, pasting due date slip for circulation, affixing call number label, barcode, and putting RFID tags, preservation, repair, etc.
  • Library Circulation: Loan function of lending library materials. Library Circulation includes checking out library materials to library users, renewing the borrowed items, reserving checked out items for the patron, checking in materials returned, checking the materials for damage at the time of return, if found damaged then giving that to responsible staff for repair and when repair is not possible then replacement, renewal of materials, receiving payment of fines for damaged and overdue materials and payment for subscription to the library and other charges, maintaining order in the stacks by re-shelving the library materials by call number given by classification system, such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system.
  • Digital Resources Management: Providing and maintaining access to licensed electronic resources. Digitizing collections for online access and maintenance of electronic resource and databases. Develop systems to organize & present digital collections. Develop systems to discover & harvest born-digital information. The rising popularity of digital archives, web-based content creation, and electronic media has shifted the way communities use libraries in the 21st century. Excessive reliance on computers have made the role of a librarian more relevant and important. 
  • The traditional librarian was a custodian responsible for selecting and caring for physical materials but today's librarian works also a digital custodian, providing access to electronic as well as physical materials, maintaining specialized knowledge of digital databases, and evaluating electronic materials and acquiring licenses.
  • Reference and Information Services: Making reading suggestions and recommendations to library patrons. Answering questions by the users in person, on the phone, by e-mail, online chat, text messages, and on social media such as through a Facebook Page. Going through too many resources, in order to pick up the most valuable ones is one of the skills the patrons could learn with a help of a librarian. Librarians assist patrons with research and locating library materials on-site and in specialized electronic resources.
  • Instruction Services: Providing instructions and teachings in effective  discovery & use of information. In times of the internet, what we mostly struggle with is the information overload, not a lack of it. Today's students are tech-savvy, but they don't know how to find required information  and they need instruction and guidance. Creating guides, tutorials, handouts for effective use of library materials. The traditional librarian was a guide, assisting users in finding relevant materials. Today's librarian is a digital guide, educating patrons about the use of digital library services and generalized digital literacy, providing virtual service to users, often through library websites. 
  • Outreach Services: Develop programs & exhibits that highlight library collections. Work with diverse user communities. Coordinating programs such as storytelling for children,  information literacy or health information, reading clubs, a book talk, etc. The traditional librarian was a PR officer, maintaining connections with community institutions and other libraries. Today's librarian is a digital PR officer, developing relationships with database managers, electronic publishers, etc., hosting community events, partnering with other libraries to increase access to materials.
  • Personnel Management: Leading, training, and supervising library staff.
  • Library Planning: Planning a new library or planning for the organization and services of an established library.
  • Financial Management: Managing finance aspects and allocation of budgets.
  • Planning fundraising for library
  • Keeping up to date with modern library technology
  • In a survey, it is found that 75 percent of all the librarians are between the age group of 25-55.
  • Job opportunities are on the positive side as a large number of trained librarians will be required to fill the positions.
  • Librarians are teachers, problem solvers, innovators, collaborators, leaders, and learners.

LCSH entry in Library of Congress Authorities

LC control no.:sh 85076491
LCCN Permalink:https://lccn.loc.gov/sh85076491
HEADING:Librarians
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010__ |a sh 85076491
035__ |a (DLC)sh 85076491
035__ |a (DLC)73882
040__ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC
053_0 |a Z682 |c Personnel
053_0 |a Z720 |c Biography
150__ |a Librarians
550__ |w g |a Information scientists
550__ |w g |a Library employees
550__ |a Libraries
906__ |t 7614 |u ---- |v 0
953__ |a xx00

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11 EXCELLENT INFOGRAPHICS ABOUT THE LIBRARIAN

1) Evolution Of The Noble Librarian [Source]

2) What Librarians Do [Source]


3) Anatomy Of A Librarian [Source]


4) Many Reasons You Need Your Librarian [Source]


5) The Times They Are A Changin [Source]


6) Librarians In The Digital Age [Source]


7) I Am A {Social} Librarian [Source]


8) Librarians Matter [Source]


9) A Librarian's Worth [Source]


10) A Librarian's Daily Duties [Source]


11) Future Ready Librarians [Source]



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  • Last Updated 2017-03-24 [Added an external link] 
  • Written 2016-03-05

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  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback.
  • Sally C. TsengFormer Librarian, University of California, Irvine United States [March 14, 2016,  e-mail in AUTOCAT] Hello Salman, Thank you very much for sharing these informative links.  Your time and hard work are a real contribution to librarianship!
  • N V Sathyanarayana, CMD, Informatics (India) Ltd., [March 18, 2016, LinkedIn Group Special Libraries Association] -- Congratulations! Salman for your valuable and painstaking compilation. I went through your blog. It is both fun and rewarding to browse. I enjoyed browsing through your blog assimilating interesting facts about the world of librarianship that is struggling to evolve as Information Science in a new and fast changing competitive world of ICT.
  • Translation of this article in Spanish - University of Salamanca [Salamanca, Spain]

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