Saturday, November 28, 2015

Subject Headings Manual : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Librarianship Studies & Information Technology
Library of Congress Subject Headings

Subject Headings Manual  Subject Headings Manual (SHM) provides guidelines to use Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The manual was originally conceived as an in-house procedure manual to aid subject catalogers at the Library of Congress in constructing and assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) in an accurate and consistent manner. SHM includes explanations of subject cataloging policy, procedures, and practices for the catalogers at Library of Congress in providing LCSH subject headings to bibliographic records and constructing new headings to be included in LCSH. Other libraries who wish to catalog in the same manner as the Library of Congress as well as faculty at schools of library and information science who wish to teach Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to their students should follow the guidelines of the Subject Headings Manual (SHM).

The process of cataloging involves two major activities, viz. Descriptive Cataloging and Subject Cataloging. For descriptive cataloging a popular standards was there in the form of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR), but for subject cataloging there was no formal code of rules comparable to Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR). In 1984, in response to the expressed need of the library community for a guide to subject cataloging, the Library of Congress began publishing its internal instructions for subject cataloging in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. A "preliminary edition" of the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings was published in 1984, a "revised edition" in 1985, the third edition in 1988, the fourth in 1991, and the fifth in 1996. The fourth and fifth editions were updated semiannually during the years 1991-2008. For this 2008 edition, the title has been changed to Subject Headings Manual (SHM). The text is essentially a recompilation of the text of the fifth edition with minor revisions and updates that have been made since the publication of the final update to the fifth edition, which was published in spring 2008.

LCSH, presently in 37th edition (2015) should be used with several auxiliary aids. Most important of these is the Subject Headings Manual (SHM). The Manual contains the same instructions used by subject catalogers at the Library of Congress in their daily work. Although some of the instructions describe internal Library of Congress procedures, most of them are essential for those who wish to understand and to apply Library of Congress Subject Headings correctly.

The rules for constructing and assigning LCSH heading are contained in two sources: the introduction to LCSH and the Subject Headings Manual (SHM), both available online from the Library of Congress website. Based on these guidelines LCSH has provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity. In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about.

In recognition of the fact that the manual continues to serve as an important tool for Library of Congress catalogers, and that users outside the Library of Congress now constitute an ever larger audience, a survey was conducted by a task group of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging in 1994-95 to solicit ideas for improvements to the manual. Suggestions from that survey were incorporated into the fifth edition of the manual and are carried over into this 2008 edition. The most significant of these include the following:
  • Examples are presented in most cases with full MARC 21 content designation.
  • Boldface paragraph titles have been added to the individual sections within each instruction sheet to make it possible to locate specific policies or instructions more quickly and easily.
  • Many instruction sheets have been expanded, reorganized, and rewritten for greater clarity.
  • New instruction sheets have been added, covering such topics as chronological subdivisions, mergers and splits of jurisdictions, artistic photography, cooking and cookbooks, databases, electronic serials, and the subdivision —Songs and music
  • Instruction sheets have been added that provide summaries of cataloging procedures in the field of music and literature.
  • The general instruction sheet on assigning and constructing subject headings has been revised and expanded, and a new introductory instruction sheet on subdivisions has been added.
  • Many cataloging practices that had been observed at the Library of Congress as part of its "oral tradition" are now documented in writing for the first time.
  • The general lists of free-floating subdivision (H 1095-H 1140) now include references to other instruction sheets that explain the use of individual subdivisions.
  • Form subdivisions are explicitly identified as such in all lists of free-floating subdivisions.
  • Where possible, procedures that apply specifically and only to Library of Congress staff have been identified with the caption "LC practice:," enabling other users to ignore the section that follows if they wish.
  • Where possible, more generic language has been substituted for language that in previous editions was meaningful only to Library of Congress staff.

The print-ready PDF files for the Library of Congress Subject Headings Manual (SHM) are available from the Library of Congress website. Links to SHM files can also be had from Cataloger's Reference Directory of RDA Blog.

This data is updated as changes are approved. Because of steadily declining demand and increasing printing costs, SHM is being made available as free downloadable PDF files. For users desiring enhanced functionality, SHM will continue as part of the web-based subscription product, Cataloger's Desktop.

Used for: SHM, Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, Library of Congress Subject Headings Manual

Note: This description is chiefly based on information from Library of Congress.




This new encyclopedic entry in the Glossary of Library & Information Science of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog on Subject Headings Manual (SHM) answers following questions?
  • What is Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is history of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • What is the cost of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)?
  • How SHM is revised?
  • Where can we get free SHM?
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?
Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used Subject Heading List throughout the world. Even though all libraries use LCSH to provide Subject Heading, most of them are not aware of the proper guidelines and practices for applying LCSH headings. I am saying this from my experience of working in some major libraries in India, namely the National Library of IndiaCentral Reference Library, and the Indian School of Business Library and observing the catalogs of various libraries of different countries and also records in WorldCat database OCLC, world's largest library catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the focus areas of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. It aims to generate awareness and provide information to librarians and catalogers about Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) based on international standards. Till recently Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) were available as paid products from LC and were very costly. Now that these are made available for free, it is a great initiative and service by the Library of Congress to the profession of librarianship and libraries should cash this opportunity to provide Subject Headings in their catalogs in the correct way.  

All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:

Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Subject Headings Manual (SHM). You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Subject Headings Manual (SHM)

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.

At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ....

See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):

Saturday, November 14, 2015

RDA LC-PCC PS Revision

Resource Description and Access RDA


RDA Toolkit Update, October 13, 2015 - Changes in Resource Description and Access (RDA) and Library of Congress - Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) and RDA Toolkit

A new release of the RDA Toolkit is published on Tuesday, October 13.  This message covers several points you should be aware of related to the release.

TOPIC 1: Changes in RDA Content
TOPIC 2: Change in Content in LC-PCC PSs

TOPIC 3: Functional Changes in the RDA Toolkit

Read now: http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/11/rda-lc-pcc-ps-revision.html

Friday, November 13, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Librarianship Studies & Information Technology
Library of Congress Subject Headings

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBJECT HEADINGS  Library of Congress Subject Headings is the list of headings produced from the subject authority file maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records, and published annually. It is popularly known by its abbreviation as LCSH and is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase subject authority file. LCSH is a multidisciplinary vocabulary that includes headings in all subjects, from science to religion, to history, social science, education, literature, and philosophy. It also includes headings for geographic features, ethnic groups, historical events, building names, etc. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used subject vocabulary in the world. It is the model for many other vocabularies in English and other languages and has been translated into numerous languages. The strongest aspect of LCSH is that it represents subject headings of the Library of Congress, the national library of the United States, one of the richest of national libraries of the world. The administrative and managerial machinery of LC has made it possible for LCSH to stand out as an undisputed leader. LCSH is also used as indexing vocabulary in a number of published bibliographies.

LCSH comprise a thesaurus or a controlled vocabulary of subject headings which is used by a cataloger or an indexer to assign subject headings to a bibliographic record to represent the subject of a work he/she is cataloging. LCSH contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonym terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as the subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. Cross references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) was originally developed by the Library of Congress for use in its cataloging records in 1898. It was first published in 1914 under the title Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogs of the Library of Congress. Since then, it has become the standard list for providing subject headings in the United States as well as other countries. The list has gone through many editions. Starting from the eighth edition, the title was changed to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The thirty-seventh edition of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH 37) contains headings established by the Library through January 2015. The headings included in this list were obtained by creating a file consisting of all subject heading and subdivision records in verified status in the subject authority file at the Library of Congress. Approximately 337,354 authority records were in the file then. The subject authority database from which the headings in this edition were drawn indicates that the file contains approximately 24,018 personal name headings of which 22,854 represent family names, 9,454 corporate headings, 9 meeting or conference headings, 485 uniform titles, 239, 916 topical subject headings, and 60,354 geographic subject headings. There are 770 general USE references, 4,360 general see also references, 294, 791 references from one usable heading to another, and 354, 879 references from unused terms to used headings. The creation and revision of subject headings is a continuous process. Approximately 5,000 new headings, including headings with subdivisions, are added to LCSH each year. Proposals for new headings and revisions to existing ones are submitted by catalogers at the Library of Congress and by participants in the Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO). Subject headings are proposed as needed for new cataloging, due to literary warrant--a heading must be needed to describe a work before it can be proposed for inclusion. These proposals are approved by cataloging policy specialists in the Library of Congress’ Policy and Standards Division. The specialists ensure that the proposals conform to the rules and structure of LCSH, including heading format, provision of references, and scope notes. Approved proposals become part of the online authority file of subject headings at the Library of Congress. LCSH is not complete unto itself. Names of persons and corporate bodies, jurisdictions and quasi-jurisdictional entities, and titles can generally be assigned as LC subject headings, but are established in the LC/NACO Name Authority File (NAF) according to instructions contained in RDA: Resource Description and Access (previously AACR2).

The rules for constructing and assigning LCSH heading are contained in two sources: the introduction to LCSH and the Subject Headings Manual (SHM), both available online from the Library of Congress website. Based on these guidelines LCSH has provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity. In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about.

The present form of LCSH is quite different from the vocabulary that was initially developed at LC over a century ago. The present LCSH has a thesaurus like syndetic structure in the form of USE references to direct the user from a synonym or quasi-synonym to the preferred term, and UF (used for), BT (broader term), RT (related term), and NT (narrower term) notes to indicate semantic relations between headings. LCSH was published in large red volumes (till recently five), which were typically displayed in the reference sections of libraries and in cataloging departments. In early 2013, the Library of Congress announced that it is transitioning to online-only publication of its cataloging documentation. The printing of documentation for purchase has now ceased, and all new editions and updates will be freely available as PDF files on LC’s website. The final printed edition of LCSH was the 35th, published in 2013. The 37th edition is issued in January 2015 as PDF files that may be freely downloaded from http://www.loc.gov/aba/cataloging/subject/. PSD plans to issue new PDF editions annually. LCSH may also be searched online in the Library of Congress Classification Web, a subscription service, or free of charge (as individual records) at Library of Congress Authorities. LCSH headings can also be searched from LC Linked Data Service http://id.loc.gov.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service

Hotels

URI
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85062487

Variants
Hotels, taverns, etc
Inns

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Caravansaries
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Lodging-houses
Motels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Boardinghouses
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification
GT3770-GT3896
NA7800-NA7850
TX901-TX946


Used for: LCSH, LC Subject Headings, Library of Congress Subject Heading




This new encyclopedic entry in the “Glossary of Library & Information Science” of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions?
  • What is Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • What is scope of Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • What is history Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • How LCSH is produced?
  • Is LCSH a thesaurus?
  • Where LCSH is applied?
  • What is the cost of Library of Congress Subject Headings?
  • How LCSH applies a syndetic structure?
  • How LCSH is revised?
  • What are the different types of headings in LCSH?
  • How many headings are available in LCSH?
  • How present LCSH is different from the previous LCSH?
  • How to use in LCSH the names of persons and corporate bodies, jurisdictions and quasi-jurisdictional entities, and titles as subject headings?
  • Where can we get free LCSH?
  • What are the tools and resources for providing LCSH?
  • How to give LCSH in a bibliographic record according to international standards?
All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:
Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Library of Congress Subject Headings. You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Library of Congress Subject Headings

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.


At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ...

See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):