Thursday, October 22, 2015

Subject Heading List : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science

Subject Heading

Subject Heading List  Subject Heading List is the printed or published list of subject headings which may be produced from the subject authority file maintained by an organization or individual.

Subject heading list contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval. Cross references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

Subject heading lists may have provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity.

Two popular subject heading lists are Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Sears List of Subject Headings.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service

Hotels

URI
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85062487

Variants
Hotels, taverns, etc
Inns

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Caravansaries
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Lodging-houses
Motels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Boardinghouses
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification
GT3770-GT3896
NA7800-NA7850
TX901-TX946

Subject headings, like access points based on author names and titles, serve the dual function of location and collocation. Subject heading lists are used by library catalogers to aid them in their choice of appropriate subject headings and to achieve uniformity. Subject Headings and thesauri are one of the two methods used to facilitate subject access to library materials. The other is library classification. Classification organizes knowledge and library materials into a systematic order according to their subject content, while subject headings provide access to documents through vocabulary terms. Subject Headings or Thesauri can assign multiple terms to the same document, but in classification each document can only be placed in one class.

In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about. 

Used for: Subject Heading Scheme, Subject Headings Scheme, Subject Headings List, Subject Scheme, Subject Heading Schedule




This new encyclopedic entry in the “Glossary of Library & Information Science” of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions?
  • What is Subject Heading List?
  • Where Subject Heading List is applied?
  • What is vocabulary control and why is it important?
  • How Subject Heading List assist library users and staff?
  • What are the alternatives to Subject Heading?
  • What are the popular Subject Heading Lists?

All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:

Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Subject Heading. You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Subject Heading

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.



At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.


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See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Library Cataloging Research

RDA Bibliography
RDA Bibliography


This new RDA Blog post discusses status and availability of researches on library descriptive cataloging with reference to Masters, M.Phil. and Ph.D. thesis and dissertations on library cataloging which may be available in print and/or online.

It argues that with the emergence of Resource Description & Access (RDA), as the successor of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2), it becomes necessary to do quality research works on the descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2 and evaluating its significance and impact on librarianship and library services.

It seeks suggestions for potential topics on which researches should be carried out in Library Descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2

#RDABLOG #RDABIBLIOGRAPHY #RDA #CATALOGING

Friday, October 16, 2015

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Information Access Through The Subject

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Most of the users approach information sources not with names, who might have been responsible for their creation, but with a question that requires an answer, or a topic for study. Users seek documents or information on a particular subject. In order to make provision for this common approach, it is necessary to arrange documents on the shelf and entries in catalogs in such a way that items on a specific subject can be retrieved. In other words, it may be said that subject approach is very important in the access to and exploitation of documents in a library. Before we actually discuss the methods developed by librarians and information workers to meet this requirement, let us consider the question "What is a subject?" while talking about a subject we normally refer to a given area of knowledge, or the contents of a document of a given scope. A subject may be defined by:

a. an area of interest, 

b. an area in which an individual researcher or professional works, 

c. an area in which an individual writes, and 

d. an area of knowledge being studied.

Let us consider a well known area such as Physics. To understand this subject, let us first ask a student studying this subject, as to what constitutes this subject. Also, let us find out the definition of physics from a few dictionaries and encyclopedias. We may come across different definitions and different boundaries for this subject area alone. We may also find that different users and separate pieces of literature hold different perspectives on a subject. The points of divergence in perspective can be categorized into two types:

a. different labels (names) that are used for a subject, and 

b. different concepts about scope and associations with other subjects that are evident. 

Essentially, these factors form the basis of problems in identifying a satisfactory subject approach and the need to have a vast array of tools to explain the subject approach to knowledge or information. It is possible and convenient to select a particular view point on the scope, associations and labels for subjects which coincides with the way in which subjects are handled in the literature. In libraries, most devices for the organisation of knowledge concern themselves primarily with organizing documents, based on literary warrant. This approach is known as pragmatic approach. Collection dependency of the resulting tool. There is retrieval devices, and that is to build schemes, which depend upon theoretical views about the nature and structure of knowledge. This theoretical approach is important in determining the nature of subject devices required for the organisation of knowledge. A subject device normally seeks to fulfill two functions:

a. to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject; and 

b. to show what a library or information center has on related subjects. 

Different devices for the organisation of knowledge place different emphasis based on the relative importance of these two functions. However, the two functions are inter-dependent and neither can be excluded without impairing the effectiveness of the other.

Classification schemes as well as alphabetical indexing systems attempt to fulfill both the basic functions mentioned earlier. The distinction arises from different emphasis. Classification schemes specialize in showing network of subjects and displaying relationships between subjects while alphabetical indexing systems specialize in establishing specific labels for subjects and providing direct access to individual subjects. Also, it may be stated here that author and title catalogs enable the user to locate documents of which the user knows either the name of the author or title of the documents, while subject catalog enable him to find out documents of his interest even without knowing any of these items of information.

The subject approach may totally be alphabetical or it might be classified supported by alphabetical indexes. 

In classified system the arrangement of library materials is done using a classification scheme. The classification scheme provides a library with a systematic arrangement of materials according to their subject content. The second, and the most commonly used method, is indexing the library materials through the use of a subject heading list or controlled vocabulary. This method provides access to the intellectual content of a library. Classification provides a logical approach to the arrangement of documentary materials, where as subject cataloging provides alphabetic approach to the concepts discussed in these materials. These two methods offer two alternative modes of access to library collection.

This new post of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions:
  • What are the Subject Approach to Information in Libraries
  • How library users seek information on a particular subject?
  • How library materials are arranged on shelves and catalogs to be located by subject?
  • What is a subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on related subjects?
  • How classification schemes are used for subject approaches?
  • How subject headings are used for subject approaches?

Source: (Chapter 1) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ....

Thursday, October 15, 2015

RDA CATALOGING NEWS

RDA CATALOGING NEWS


http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/10/rda-cataloging-news.html


RDA Cataloging News is an initiative by RDA Blog. It combines the entries of RDA Bibliography and also items on Subject Cataloging. Please suggest entries to be included in RDA Cataloging News (preferably through RDA Cataloging - Google+ Community on Resource Description and Access (RDA) or by any other means of your wish).

Contents appear under following headings:
  • News
  • Events / Workshops / Seminars / Conferences / Training / Etc.
  • Web / Blog Posts
  • Articles
  • Books
  • Presentations
  • Videos
  • Thesis
  • Reviews
Do you think this tedious and time consuming initiative of compiling a newsletter of RDA Cataloging News should be continued? Will you be helping me in this compilation by suggesting information to be included here? What do you think about RDA Blog, is this helpful? Please provide us your valuable feedback in the RDA Blog Guest Book; selected detailed feedback will be published on RDA Blog Testimonials


#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES #RDABLOG #CATALOGING #RDA #MARC21

Friday, October 2, 2015

Introduction to Bibliography : Information Access Through The Subject

Information Access Through The Subject

Introduction to Bibliography

1.     AIMS  AND SCOPE
          The present study in the form of annotated bibliography comprises of all the significant literature dealing with “Information Access  Through the Subject”. Although the bibliography is selective in nature, an attempt has been made to cover all aspects of the topic. I hope this bibliography would be helpful to those who wish to know about the subject.

2.           METHODOLOGY
          The bibliography consists of 322 entries on the topic. LISA was consulted to approach the primary sources. For the purpose of abstracting, primary sources were looked into, using the collections of  “Seminar Library of the Department of Library and Information Science, AMU, Maulana Azad Library, AMU, Aligarh, Central Reference Library, Delhi University and Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre, New Delhi”.

3.     STANDARD FOLLOWED
          The relevant bibliographical details were noted down on 5”x7” cards following the Indian Standard for bibliographic References (IS:2381-1963) and the Classified Catalogue Code.
          The items of bibliographical references for each entry of periodical are arranged as follows:
a)           Name(s) of author(s)
b)           A full stop
c)            Title of the contribution including subtitle (if any)
d)           A full stop
e)            Title of the periodical, being underlined
f)             A full stop
g)            Volume Number
h)           Issue number (within brackets)
i)             Semi colon
j)             Year of Publication
k)           Semi Colon
l)             Inclusive pages of the article
m)         A full stop

Specimen Entry
          BATES (Marcia J).  Subject access in online catalogues: A design model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 37(6); 1986;357-376.
3.1       Conference Proceedings
          Elements of Information in  the entries for conference proceedings are  given as follows:
a)           Name of the author(s)
b)           A full stop
c)            Title of the contribution including subtitle and alternative title, if any
d)           A full stop
e)            Connecting word, such as “In” being underlined.-+
f)             Name  of the conference being underlined
g)            A full stop
h)           Place
i)             Comma
j)             Year of publication
k)           Semi colon
l)             Inclusive pages of articles

Specimen Entry for Conference Proceedings
          KEEM (Michael E). Aspects of computer based indexing languages. In Proceedings of the fifth annual conference on computers in libraries. London, 1991; 148-151.

4.     ABSTRACT
          The bibliographical details of the articles are followed by informative abstracts and indicative-informative abstracts (in some cases). Care has been taken  to give essential information contained in the articles.

5.           SUBJECT HEADINGS
          The entries in the bibliography have been classified and arranged using a scheme involving Broad Subject Headings followed by the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA). It may be recalled that prior to 1993, the abstracts in LISA,  were arranged according to the unpublished draft version of CRG’s ‘A Classification of Library and Information Science (1971)’. This was followed  until 1992. Since 1993, CRG classification scheme was replaced by a scheme  developed by LISA based on the Broad Subject Headings.
          In consultation with my supervisor a modest attempt has been made to classify the bibliographic entries using the present scheme of LISA. At places the numbers along with the  headings were required to be expanded. Dewey Decimal Classification scheme of classification,  edition 21st, was used for purpose of expansion. The whole scheme of LISA involving Broad Subject Headings with the expansions shown in italics has been provided following:

BROAD SUBJECT HEADINGS
1.0          LIBRARRIANSHIP AND INFORMATIOIN SCIENCE
1.1          PUBLICATIONS AND DATABASES
1.11        BOOK REVIEWS
1.12        CONFERENCES
1.13        RESEARCH
1.14        WORLD LIBRARIANSHIP
2.0          PROFESSION
2.1          ORGANISATIONS
2.11        BIOGRAPHIES
2.12        EDUCATION AND TRAINING
2.13        LIBRARY AND INFORMATION STAFF
2.14        TYPES OF STAFF
3.0          LIBRARIES AND RESOURSE CENTRES
3.1          WORLD LIBRARIES
3.11 NATIONAL LIBRARIES AND STATE LIBRARIES
3.12 PUBLIC LIBRARIES
3.13 ACADEMIC LIBRARIES(NOT SCHOOL LIBRARIES)
3.14 GOVERNMENT LIBRARIES
3.15 LIBRARIES OF OTHER ORGANIZATION AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES
3.16        SPECIAL SUBJECT LIBRARIES, RESEARCH LIBRARIES
3.17       SOCIAL SCINECES, BUSINESS LIBRARIES
3.18       HUMANITIES LIBRARIES
3.19       SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE LIBRARIES
3.2          ARCHIVES
3.21     NATIONAL  AND GOVERNMENT ARCHIVES
3.22       BUSINESS ARCHIEVES
3.23       CHURCH  ARCHIEVES
3.24       ARCHIVES OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND PRIVATE ARCHIVES
3.25       SOUND AND FILM ARCHIEVES
3.26       SPECIAL SUBJECT ARCHIEVES
3.27       MUSEUMS
4.0         LIBRARY USE AND USERS
4.1          LIBRARIES AND SERVICES BY TYPES OF USERS
4.11       USER-CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE
4.12       SCHOOL LIBRARIES
4.13       USERS-SOCIAL GROUPS
4.14       USERS OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS
4.15       USER SERVICES
4.16       USER TRAINING
4.17       PROMOTION
4.18       ACTIVITIES
4.19       EXHIBITION
4.2          DOCUMENT DELIVERY
4.21     INTERLOAND AND PHOTOCOPYING SERVICES
4.22       LOANS
5.0         MATERIALS
5.1          OLD AND RARE MATERIALS
5.11       MATERIALS BY PUBLISHERS
5.12       MATERIALS BY LANGUAGE AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
5.13       PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS
5.14       GREY LITERATURE
5.15       OTHER PRINTED DOCUMENTS
5.16       NON-PRINT MATERIAL
5.17       AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS
5.18       ELECTRONIC MEDIA
5.19       MICROPHONES
5.2          SUBJECTS
5.21     SOCIAL SCINECES, BUSINESS MATERIAL
5.22       HUMANITIES MATERIALS
5.23       SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE MATERIALS
5.24       BIBLIOMETRICS, SCIENTOMETRICS, INFORMETRICS
6.0         ORGANIZATION
6.1          COOPERATION
6.11       MANAGEMENT (OTHER THAN PERSONAL MANAGEMENT)
6.12       FINANCE
6.13       PUBLIC RELATIONS
6.14       OTHER MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES AND OPERATIONS
7.0         LIBRARY BUILDINGS
7.1          REMOVALS
7.11       PLANNING AND DESIGN  OF LIBRARY BUILDINGS
7.12       NEW AND RENOVATED LIBRARY BUILDINGS
7.13       FURNITURE
7.14       VEHICLES
8.0         LIBRARY TECHNOLOGY
8.1          TELECOMMUNICATION
8.11       NETWORKS
8.12       COMPUTERS
8.13       SOFTWARE
8.14       OTHER MACHINES
9.0         TECHNICAL SERVICES
9.1          CIRCULATION CONTROL
9.11       ACQUISITIONS
9.12       COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT
9.13       WITHDRAWALS
9.14       STOCKTAKING
9.15       PRESERVATION
9.16       SECURITY
9.17       SHELF ARRANGEMENT
9.18       OTHER TECHNICAL SERVICES
10.0      INFORMATION COMMUNICATION
10.1       INFORMATION WORK
10.11    SOCIAL SCIENCES, BUSINESS INFORMATION WORK
10.12    HUMANITIES INFORMATION WORK
10.13    SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE INFORMATION WORK
10.14    INFORMATION SERVICES
10.15    REFERENCE WORK
11.0      BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CONTROL
11.1       BIBLIOGRAPHY
11.11    BIBLIOGRAPHIES
12.0    KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION (Used for  BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS)
12.1       PERIODICALS CONTROL
12.11    CATALOGUING AND INDEXING
12.12    COOPERATIVE  CATALOGUING, BIBLIOGRAPHIC UTILITIES
12.13    CATALOGUING RULES
12.14    BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION
12.15    MANUAL  CATALOGUES
12.16    COMPUTERIZED CATALOGUES (Use ONLINE CATALOGUES)
12.17    ONLINE CATALOGUES
12.18    CD-ROM CATALOGUES
12.19    INDEXING
12.2       BOOK INDEXING
12.21    SUBJECT INDEXING
12.211  Pre-coordinate Indexing ( Including Chain Indexing, PRECIS, POPSI)
12.212  COORDINATE AND POST-COORDINATE INDEXING
12.213  TITLE MANIPULATION (Including Catchword, KWIC, KWOC)
12.22    SEARCHING
12.23    (Not used)
12.24    SUBJECT HEADINGS SCHEMES
12.25     THESAURI
12.26    CLASSIFICATION
12.27    CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES
12.271  GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES
12.2711               DDC
12.2712               UDC
12.2713               LCC
12.2714               BC
12.2715               CC
12.272             Classification fo Specific Disciplines and Subjects
12.28    COMPUTER ASSISTED INDEXING
13.0    COMPUTERIZED INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
13.1       ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL ASPECTS
13.11    NETWORKS
13.12    SOFTWARE
13.13    AUTOMATIC TEXT ANALYSIS, AUTOMATIC INDEXING, AMCNINE TRANSLATION
13.14    SEARCHING
13.15    DOWNLOADING
13.16    DATABASES IN GENERAL
13.17    NON-BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES, DATABANKS
13.18    BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES
13.19    IMAGE DATABASES
13.2       FULL TEXT DATABASES
13.21MULTIMEDIA
13.22ONLINE SYSTEMS
13.23ONLINE DATABASES
13.24DISC STORED SYSTEMS
13.25CD-ROMS
13.26CD-ROM DATABASES
13.27OTHER DISC STORED SYSTEMS
13.28OTHER STORAGE SYSTEMS
13.29VIDEOTEX
14.0      COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
14.1       COMPUTER INDUSTRY
14.11    NETWORKS
14.12    COMPUTER SCIENCE
14.13    COMPUTERS
14.14    SOFTWARE
14.15    IMAGE TECHNOLOGY
14.16    ONLINE SYSTEMS
14.17    DISC STORE SYSTEMS
14.18    TELECOMMUNICATION AND  BROAD CASTING TECHNOLOGY
14.19    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
14.191  ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
14.1911 MACHINE LEARNING (Including Gemetoc  Algorithms)
14.1912 NEURAL NETWORKS
14.1913 KNWOLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS(Including Expert Systems)
14.1914  NATURAL LANGUAGE POCESSING  
15.0      READING
15.1       LITERACY
16.0      MEDIA
16.1       COPYRIGHT
16.11    PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND BOOK SELLING
16.12    PRINTING
16.13    PRINTING HISTORY AND ANALYTICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
16.14    PUBLISHING AND BOOK SELLING
16.15    AUTHORSHIP
16.16    PUBLISHING
16.17    PUBLICATIONS
16.18    ELECTRONIC MEDIA
16.19    BOOK SELLING
16.20    AUTIOVISUAL MATERIALS
16.21    BROADCASTING
17.0      KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING
17.1       RESEARCH
17.11    EDUCATION
18.0      RECORDS MANAGEMENT

19.0      OTHER FRINGE SUBJECTS

<<<<<---------->>>>>



Source: Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 

The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation under the supervision of Professor Shabahat Husain, Chairman, Department of Library and Information Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, in 2002. Information Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work. It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.