Wednesday, August 26, 2015

RDA LC-PCC PS Revision

RDA Blog post on RDAToolkit Update, August 11, 2015 - Changes in Resource Description and Access (RDA) and Library of Congress - Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) and RDA Toolkit
  • TOPIC 1: Changes in RDA Content
  • TOPIC 2: Change in Content in LC-PCC PSs
  • TOPIC 3: Functional Changes in the RDA Toolkit

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) - Subject Headings Manual (SHM) H 202 and H 203 Revised


Revisions to Subject Headings Manual Instruction Sheets on Authority Research and Source Citations

Subject policy specialists in the Library of Congress’ Policy and Standards Division (PSD) have revised Subject Headings Manual instruction sheets H 202 (Authority Research for Subject Heading Proposals) and H 203 (Citation of Sources). The instruction sheets had not been thoroughly reviewed and revised since the early 1990s, and while most of the instructions remained valid, they needed to be updated and clarified for the twenty-first century. The examples in particular needed to be replaced in order to depict long-standing, but undocumented, practices and policies on authority research and citations.

This announcement provides some background on the importance of fully supported proposals, and then summarizes the substantive revisions to H 202 and H 203.

Importance of Fully Supported Proposals

Source citations in proposals for new and revised subject headings serve two purposes: to allow for vetting of the proposal during the editorial review process, and to provide a permanent reference for future consultation.

It is important to include information that supports every aspect of a proposal, including the form of heading and any qualifier, UFs based on usage, the BTs and RTs, and the scope note. This support is typically provided by quoting or paraphrasing passages from the work being cataloged and the reference sources that were consulted. In some cases, though, it may take the form of a cataloger-supplied summary. Further, since the language of the vocabulary is English, information (other than the titles of foreign-language works) should be provided in English when possible.

Provision of full information from the work being cataloged and the reference sources that were consulted allows for much more expeditious review by the policy specialists. It also assists catalogers at LC and in SACO institutions, all of whom are strongly encouraged to review the Tentative Lists and provide feedback on the proposals. 

The authority record also serves as a permanent record of the rationale for proposing the heading. Catalogers use the source citations of approved headings to understand what the headings mean and how they should be used. Catalogers also use the citations to assist them when considering whether to propose another heading. 

Citation of an “LC pattern” in a 952 field is not a substitute for source information provided in the 670 fields. Source citations provide intellectual support for the need for the heading and references, while the LC pattern justifies the form of heading and references.

The editorial meeting has always marked some incomplete proposals as “resubmit” and sent them back to the proposing catalogers for additional work. Formerly, policy specialists would complete some of the proposals themselves, or take certain things on faith and approve them. In the current era of diminished resources and increasing workloads, however, the policy specialists are unable to complete the proposals, and providing incomplete information for consultation is a disservice to current and future catalogers. The meeting therefore requests that catalogers consult H 202 and H 203 to ensure that they submit complete proposals.

Summary of Substantial Revisions

H 202 Authority Research for Subject Heading Proposals
  • The instruction sheet was rearranged to emphasize research instead of the identification of patterns.
  • The instructions on consulting reference sources (which now comprise sec. 1) were lightly revised to clarify terminology and to incorporate twenty-first century sources such as websites.
  • Sec. 3, on using the 952 field to provide clarifying information, was corrected. The 952 field (Cataloger’s Permanent Note) should not be used for definitions of the term, evidence of usage, etc.; rather, the 670 field (Source Data Found) serves that purpose.
  • The brief examples that formerly appeared as sec. 2.a have been deleted, and the new sec. 5 includes 17 examples of full authority records from various disciplines. Each example includes an explanatory note on the purpose of the citations provided in the record. 
H 203 Citation of Sources
  • Some of the sections were renumbered to follow a logical progression.
  • The instructions citing websites were removed from the section on unpublished sources and now comprise sec. 6.
  • The instructions on parenthetical information (now sec. 7) were revised to indicate that information from the source being cited, not just the source’s title and date, should be provided.
  • Sec. 8 was revised to provide instructions on citing email correspondence.
  • The examples were updated throughout.
Source: Library of Congress

Subject Headings Manual (SHM) provides guidelines to use Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The manual was originally conceived as an in-house procedure manual addressed to cataloging staff at the Library of Congress. From the very beginning, however, the manual included not only procedures and practices to be followed by LC catalogers but also substantive explanations of subject cataloging policy.  Other libraries who wish to catalog in the same manner as the Library of Congress as well as faculty at schools of library science who wish to teach Library of Congress subject cataloging policies to their students should follow the guidelines of the Subject Headings Manual (SHM).

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.

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Monday, August 17, 2015

RDA Bibliography

RDA Bibliography

RDA Bibliography : Articles, Books, Presentations, Thesis, and Videos on Resource Description and Access (RDA) & Cataloging

This is a compilation from Google Alerts and other sources and searches. Check complete compilation so far in the Bibliography Page of RDA Bibliography containing Articles, Books, Presentations, Thesis, and Videos on Resource Description and Access (RDA)

[RDA Bibliography is a partner-blog of RDA Blog

Sunday, August 2, 2015

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Saturday, August 1, 2015

Library Classification

Library Classification

Library Classification


Library Classification or Classification or Book Classification or Bibliographic Classification is the process of arranging, grouping, coding, and organizing books and other library materials (e.g. serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, manuscripts, computer files, e-resources etc.) on shelves or entries of a catalog, bibliography, and index according to their subject in a systematic, logical, and helpful order by way of assigning them call numbers using a library classification system, so that users can find them as quickly and easily as possible. The call number serves a dual purpose: it determines the place of a book on the shelf and colocates books on the same topic next to each other. Call number consists of a class number providing class designation, a book number providing author representation, and a collection number denoting the collection to which it belongs. In ordinary classification, we deal with the arrangement of ideas and the objects in a systematic order. But in library classification, we are concerned with documents, and the aim is to arrange these in the most helpful and permanent order. Similar to knowledge classification systems, bibliographic classification systems group entities that are similar and related together typically arranged in a hierarchical tree-type structure (assuming non-faceted system; a faceted classification system allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways). It requires a detailed scheme of classification in which knowledge is divided into broad areas, which are again subdivided into subjects or main classes. Main classes are further divided into sub-classes, and sub-classes are divided into and divisions and so on. In this way classification proceeds from the general to the specific dividing and categorizing concepts into logically hierarchical classes based on the characteristics they have in common and those that distinguish them. Levels of hierarchy in the classification schedules are indicated by indentions. Each subject, classes, sub-classes, and its divisions are represented by a system of numerals or letters or a combination of both called Notation. It is this notation that helps in the arrangement of documents on the shelves. Classification provides a logical approach to the arrangement of documentary materials. Use of classification enables library users to browse on shelves to find its materials and also additional items on the same or related subjects, and, to find out what documents the library has on a certain subject. Library classification systems are one of the two methods used to facilitate subject access to library materials. The other is alphabetical indexing languages such as thesauri and subject headings list. Classification organizes knowledge and library materials into a systematic order according to their subject content, while subject headings provide access to documents through vocabulary terms. Thesauri or subject headings can assign multiple terms to the same document, but in classification, each document can only be placed in one class. So we can say that classification number assigned to a document using as library classification scheme provides an exact location for an item on the shelves. The cataloger assigns a classification, or call number, in correlation with the subject headings. Some of the popular classification systems are the Library of Congress Classification (LCC), the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) the Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC), the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), Cutter Expansive Classification, and the Colon Classification (CC); DDC and LCC being the most popular ones. DDC is the most widely used classification system throughout the world. LCC is highly enumerative by listing all subjects of the past, the present, and the anticipatable future and its notation is enormously hospitable and expandable. LCC is also the most continuously revised classification scheme. The Classification Web database of LCC is updated daily incorporating new additions and changes proposed by catalogers and approved by the editorial committee of LCC. In the United States, academic libraries generally use Library of Congress Classification and public and school libraries prefer to use Dewey Decimal Classification. Major libraries now use web versions of LCC and DDC to classify their materials. The electronic version of LCC is available online as Classification Web ( and an electronic version of DDC is available online as WebDewey (

  • Classification, Book Classification, Bibliographic Classification


  • Salman Haider - Librarian, Cataloger, Author, Blogger

  • Last Updated: 2018-05-20 
  • Written 2015-08-01


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